Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


3.423 Mikeys
#1. Promoting the Benefits and clarifying misconceptions about Preregistration, Preprints, and Open Science for CSR.
Christopher Kavanagh, Rohan Kapitány
Adopting newly proposed ‘open science’ reforms to improve transparency and increase rigour is hard and can make us, as researchers, feel vulnerable. Nonetheless, these reforms are vital to improving the overall quality and confidence of our collective research. We have, through our own experiences, found that preregistration and details analysis plans can help to identify and avoid errors. Prepublication has similarly helped us to collaborate and receive feedback on manuscripts, particularly during prolonged periods of peer-review. The CSR field is constituted by a diversity of scholars and disciplines, and thus, faces challenges in efforts to establish common practices and research terminology. In this paper, we offer an introduction to open science reforms, specifically in relation to the practices of preregistration and prepublication. We discuss common concerns around these practices, highlighting areas of misunderstanding while conceding limitations. We conclude with voluntary, low-investment recommendations for...
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Psycasm: @pegleraj Hi Adam, my colleague and I just put out a pre-print on this topic. It's specific to the cognitive science of religion, but we have listed the pros/cons and have quite a long reference list. Hope this helps https://t.co/abnTFOvDR6
Psycasm: @scottclaessens Hi Scott - If you're still looking, my colleague and I wrote a pre-print on this topic. It's specific to the field of cognitive science of religion, but the pros/cons are generally applicable: https://t.co/abnTFOvDR6
Psycasm: Our latest pre-print (under review) with @C_Kavanagh: "Promoting the Benefits and clarifying misconceptions about Preregistration, Preprints, and Open Science for CSR." This is a direct result of the 'Directions' workshop in Erice, 2018. Enjoy! https://t.co/abnTFOvDR6
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2.016 Mikeys
#2. Comparing unsupervised speech learning directly to human performance in speech perception
Juliette Millet, Nika Jurov, Ewan Dunbar
We compare the performance of humans (English and French listeners) versus an unsupervised speech model in a perception experiment (ABX discrimination task). Although the ABX task has been used for acoustic model evaluation in previous research, the results have not, until now, been compared directly with human behaviour in an experiment. We show that a standard, well-performing model (DPGMM) has better accuracy at predicting human responses than the acoustic baseline. The model also shows a native language effect, better resembling native listeners of the language on which it was trained. However, the native language effect shown by the models is different than the one shown by the human listeners, and, notably, the models do not show the same overall patterns of vowel confusions.
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PsyArXivBot: Comparing unsupervised speech learning directly to human performance in speech perception https://t.co/gvnsE5Ty0S
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Comparing unsupervised speech learning directly to human performance in speech perception https://t.co/gvnsE5Ty0S
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2.011 Mikeys
#3. The Rosenberg and the Rest: Meta-Research on the Measurement of Self-Esteem in Personality and Social Psychology (2004-2015)
Adam Pegler, Aiden P Gregg, Claire Hart
How has self-esteem been measured in personality and social psychology? We extracted measurement information from 338 articles published in twelve leading journals from 2004 to 2015. We report on the range of instruments used, the proportion of measurement occasions accounted for by each, longitudinal patterns in instrument use, and variable aspects of the measurement process.
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pegleraj: Our preprint on the measurement of self-esteem in personality and social psychology is up. https://t.co/fLsmjhfuE8
PsyArXivBot: The Rosenberg and the Rest: Meta-Research on the Measurement of Self-Esteem in Personality and Social Psychology (2004-2015) https://t.co/s8lvliEHpL
pegleraj: RT @pegleraj: Our preprint on the measurement of self-esteem in personality and social psychology is up. https://t.co/fLsmjhfuE8
duncanmccaig: RT @pegleraj: Our preprint on the measurement of self-esteem in personality and social psychology is up. https://t.co/fLsmjhfuE8
alexmuhl_r: RT @pegleraj: Our preprint on the measurement of self-esteem in personality and social psychology is up. https://t.co/fLsmjhfuE8
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 14283
Unqiue Words: 4025

2.007 Mikeys
#4. Automatic comparison of global children’s and adult songs supports a sensorimotor hypothesis for the origin of musical scales
Shoichiro Sato, Joren Six, Peter Pfordresher, Shinya Fujii, Patrick E. Savage
Music throughout the world varies greatly, yet some musical features like scale structure display striking cross-cultural similarities. Are there musical laws or biological constraints that underlie this diversity? The “vocal mistuning” hypothesis proposes that cross-cultural regularities in musical scales arise from imprecision in vocal tuning, while the integer-ratio hypothesis proposes that they arise from perceptual principles based on psychoacoustic consonance. In order to test these hypotheses, we conducted automatic comparative analysis of 100 children’s and adult songs from throughout the world. We found that children’s songs tend to have narrower melodic range, fewer scale degrees, and less precise intonation than adult songs, consistent with motor limitations due to their earlier developmental stage. On the other hand, adult and children’s songs share some common tuning intervals at small-integer ratios, particularly the perfect 5th (~3:2 ratio). These results suggest that some widespread aspects of musical scales may be...
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PatrickESavage: 2) @getyourhornbro, Six, Pfordresher, @sfujiidr & Savage (In press). Automatic comparison of global children’s and adult songs supports a sensorimotor hypothesis for the origin of musical scales. In Proc. FMA 2019. Preprint: https://t.co/8Vb8ZHYi7j
PsyArXivBot: Automatic comparison of global children's and adult songs supports a sensorimotor hypothesis for the origin of musical scales https://t.co/HsK9ewbcZW
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 3712
Unqiue Words: 1431

2.003 Mikeys
#5. Characterizing the whiteness dependence of the Hermann and Scintillating Grid visual illusions
Eric Sun
The Hermann Grid and the Scintillating Grid are among the most prominent brightness-contrast illusions. Perception of these illusions is sensitive to a wide range of image parameters including color, linearity of the edges, and visual size of the images. Here we characterize the influence of three prominent parameters that influence grid illusion perception--dot whiteness, line whiteness, and background whiteness. Experimental data was obtained from several volunteer groups that were tasked with scoring the magnitude of the illusion for images exhibiting different whiteness levels of these three grid elements. Analysis of the data revealed a significant dependence of illusion perception on the whiteness of grid elements. Surprisingly, illusion perception effectively disappeared after an intermediate threshold of whiteness for the dot, line, and background elements in both the Scintillating Grid and Hermann Grid. Moreover, increasing the size of elements decreased the illusion magnitude. The results of this study quantify the...
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Repository: grid-illusion-whiteness
User: sunericd
Language: Mathematica
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Subscribers: 1
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 5256
Unqiue Words: 1549

2.001 Mikeys
#6. Seeing Both the Forest and the Trees: Distinct Resolution of Hierarchical Representations in Visual Working Memory
Tina Tong Liu
The capacity limit in visual working memory (VWM) has been well established, but the way in which it is limited remains under debate. For example, an item limit was proposed by the discrete slot models whereas a flexible allocation of information was suggested by the flexible resource models. Despite the discrepancies on the nature of VWM capacity limit, both models assume that items are processed independently. Recent evidence, however, revealed that VWM is hierarchically structured. Given that an item can be represented both at individual item and ensemble level, the existing measures of VWM capacity (across item and ensemble levels) cannot distinguish representations at different levels. To separately measure ensemble and individual item representation of the very same item, we designed a novel paradigm by combining the continuous report paradigm with a categorical judgement task to examine the exact relationship between individual item and ensemble representations in VWM. In the present series of four experiments, we...
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PsyArXivBot: Seeing Both the Forest and the Trees: Distinct Resolution of Hierarchical Representations in Visual Working Memory https://t.co/2DzThMDBMj
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Total Words: 11717
Unqiue Words: 2542

2.0 Mikeys
#7. Intelligence mindset shapes neural learning signals and memory
Christina Bejjani, Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi
Intelligence mindset, which denotes individual beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed versus malleable, shapes academic success, but the neural mechanisms underlying mindset-related differences in learning are unknown. Here, we probe the effects of individual differences in mindset on neural responses to negative feedback after a competence threat manipulation. We hypothesized that when their competence was threatened, participants with fixed mindsets would interpret further negative feedback as punishing. After receiving either no score or a competence-threatening IQ score, participants performed a learning task with feedback that emphasized either the evaluative or informational weight of negative feedback. Participants who experienced the competence threat had the strongest predictive relationships between mindset, performance, and caudate activation. The competence threat may have compounded the subjective punishment of negative feedback for fixed mindsets relative to growth mindsets, causing poorer learning from negative...
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PsyArXivBot: Intelligence mindset shapes neural learning signals and memory https://t.co/eW2wFFJq6C
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BillyJansson: RT @PsyArXivBot: Intelligence mindset shapes neural learning signals and memory https://t.co/eW2wFFJq6C
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In press at Biological Psychology (see also https://psyarxiv.com/3rbvd/)

Repository: mindset_fMRI
User: christinabejjani
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Total Words: 7169
Unqiue Words: 2196

2.0 Mikeys
#8. Automating with Autoscore: Introducing an R package for automating the scoring of orthographic transcripts
Tyson S. Barrett, Stephanie A Borrie, Sarah E Yoho
Automation tools---software that simplifies, calculates, scores, or otherwise performs necessary research tasks---can increase the efficiency and reproducibility of many common research tasks. Herein, we present the Autoscore R package, an open-source research and clinical tool for scoring orthographic transcripts for a measure of words correct, an important task in a variety of fields. It has previously been demonstrated that Autoscore is highly accurate and efficient (Borrie, Barrett, & Yoho, 2019). This paper presents the design of the Autoscore package, outlines how the software can be extended or improved, and provides a brief tutorial on the use of the package on example data. We also conclude by discussing the implications of Autoscore, and other openly accessible tools like it, in improving replicability and reproducibility of research.
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healthandstats: Posted a pre-print on @PsyArXiv about an #rstats package for scoring orthographic transcripts for words correct (based on a flexible number of scoring rules). Check it out if it is of any interest to you! https://t.co/aYfYg9N2f4
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Automatically scores orthographic listener transcripts for words correctly identified

Repository: autoscore
User: autoscore
Language: R
Stargazers: 2
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Forks: 1
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 6723
Unqiue Words: 2226

1.999 Mikeys
#9. Contextualizing Neuroticism in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology
Cassandra M Brandes, Jennifer L Tackett
Neuroticism is the personality trait most consistently and strongly connected to psychopathology. The majority of research on the relationship between traits and mental illness has focused on neuroticism’s connection with broad psychopathology spectra or discrete disorders. However, both personality and psychopathology are hierarchically-organized domains that may be examined at multiple levels of fidelity and bandwidth from very specific thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (i.e., nuance traits or symptoms) to very broad patterns indexing many interrelated tendencies (i.e., general factors). The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a recently proposed nosologic framework for psychopathology symptoms and domains that accounts for this tiered organization. Here, we illustrate how neuroticism-psychopathology relationships—both what is known and unknown—may be elucidated through the HiTOP system.
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StephenPiment: Contextualizing Neuroticism in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology https://t.co/5rN72w3efZ
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Contextualizing Neuroticism in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology https://t.co/Qyb5sIxrDT
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Total Words: 7737
Unqiue Words: 2442

1.998 Mikeys
#10. Computational models of retrieval processes in sentence processing
Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, Bruno Nicenboim, Frank Burchert
Sentence comprehension requires that the comprehender work out who did what to whom. This process has been characterized as retrieval from memory. We review the quantitative predictions and empirical coverage of computational implementations of retrieval models. Four directions are identified for future work: competing computational models should be developed so that their relative performance can be tested against common benchmark data-sets; large-sample, cross-linguistic data-sets need to be created to allow for quantitative model comparison; computational modeling of sources of variability in both unimpaired and impaired sentence comprehension needs to be carried out; and a shift in emphasis is needed towards accounting for systematic variability at the individual-participant level.
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SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Computational models of retrieval processes in sentence processing https://t.co/5XaQEx9ahF
zuxfoucault: RT @PsyArXivBot: Computational models of retrieval processes in sentence processing https://t.co/5XaQEx9ahF
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 8602
Unqiue Words: 2873

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