Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


2.068 Mikeys
#1. Direct and indirect links between children’s socio-economic status and education: Pathways via mental health, attitude, and cognition
Edwin Dalmaijer, Giacomo Bignardi, Alexander Anwyl-Irvine, Tess A. Smith, Roma Siugzdaite, Stepheni Uh, Amy Johnson, Duncan Astle
A child’s socio-economic status has been independently associated with poorer educational outcomes, slower cognitive development, and mental ill-health. However, while these factors clearly do not operate in a vacuum, testing all within a single study is challenging, and their interrelations thus remain largely unclear. We aimed to close this knowledge gap by developing a comprehensive tablet-based assessment of developmental variables in a sample of 519 children aged 7-9 years. We employed clustering algorithms to show that children do not group into discrete phenotypes. We then cast the broad range of measured variables as a network to explore the psychological architecture of cognitive, educational, mental health, and several environmental factors. Educational outcomes (reading and maths fluency) were directly related to cognition (short-term memory, number sense, and processing speed). By contrast, mental health (anxiety and depression symptoms) and attitudes (conscientious, grit, and growth mindset) showed indirect...
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cliffmanning: 'socio-economic status acts as the great unequaliser through its direct relations with all developmental outcomes' Direct and indirect links between children’s socio-economic status and education: https://t.co/2ZnhzH1J6s #Notwithoutme
esdalmaijer: New preprint! Network analysis in a big sample of children shows that socio-economic status impacts EVERYTHING: education, cognition, mental health, and attitude. Twittering co-authors: @BignardiG, @alexanderirvine, @RSiugzdaite, and @DuncanAstle. Link: https://t.co/oxfFAnPzqY https://t.co/sKG3trZBLx
ThaliaGoldstein: An astounding paper showing something that's often assumed, but not often studied so thoroughly. Dalmaijer et al "Socio-economic status acts as the great unequaliser through its direct relations with all developmental outcomes." https://t.co/GGGjCWyEo2
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2.056 Mikeys
#2. Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison
Jessica A. Nejman, Thomas J. Faulkenberry
Fractions present a unique challenge in early mathematics instruction, as they require focusing not on the individual symbols that make up the fraction, but rather a mental combination of the two into a single numerical magnitude. Previous studies have given conflicting accounts of how adults form these complex mental representations. Whereas some studies indicate that mental representations of fractions are holistic and are based upon the fraction’s numerical magnitude, others have indicated support for decomposed processing, where separate representations of the numerator and denominator are formed. In the present study, we tested this decomposed processing account using an implicit priming paradigm. In a series of experimental trials, the comparison of two fraction magnitudes (“which is larger?”) primed a subsequent comparison trial with whole numbers. Using Bayesian analyses, we found that when people compared two fractions with common denominators, they were faster in the subsequent whole number comparison. However, when two...
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tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Written with my former undergraduate student Jessica Nejman. We use Bayesian hypothesis testing and @JASPStats to demonstrate semantic priming in fraction comparison
JASPStats: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
tuebang: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
LENS_Number: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
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2.032 Mikeys
#3. "Sister, I Love You!" Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation
Manon Berriche, Sacha Altay
Social media like Facebook are harshly criticized for the propagation of health misinformation. Yet, little research has provided in-depth analysis of real-world data to measure the scale of the phenomenon. This article examines an emblematic case of online health misinformation: the Facebook page Santé + Mag, which generates five times more interactions than the combination of the five best-established French media outlets. Based on the literature on cultural evolution, we hypothesized that its huge success can hardly be explained by the misleading nature of its content (H1) but rather by its diffusion of posts containing cognitive attractors that tap into evolved cognitive preferences, such as information related to sexuality, social relations, threat, disgust or negative emotions (H2-6). Drawing from media studies findings, suggesting that Facebook is primarily used to connect with friends and family, we hypothesized that the popularity of Santé + Mag could be driven by Internet users’ desire to strengthen their relationships...
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ScPoResearch: "Sister, I love you!" Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation by @berriche_manon @medialab_ScPo & @Sacha_Altay @ENS_ULM https://t.co/QqF2uxwVCE https://t.co/EJtjXeVDLC
acerbialberto: Excellent preprint from @berriche_manon and @Sacha_Altay studying online misinformation from a cultural evolution perspective https://t.co/CFzKfwon2d
berriche_manon: 1/12 🗣️I am excited to share the preprint of my first research article co-written with @Sacha_Altay 🔥 “Sister, I love you!” Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation https://t.co/y306reNaiU
PsyArXivBot: "Sister, I Love You!" Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation https://t.co/XNI38gxi0d
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2.012 Mikeys
#4. Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis
Andrew Martin, Jasmine Huang, Peter Su, Lori Matuschka, Marcus Meinzer
Background: Mixed results have been presented regarding cultural differences in perspective taking. Two competing theories have been put forward that suggest interdependent self-construal, as observed in people from East Asian cultural backgrounds, would be associated with either worse perspective taking due to self-other mergence (representational hypothesis) or better perspective taking due to greater attention to others (attentional hypothesis), compared with people from Western countries with more independent self-construal. Research to date has been limited and no study to date has focused on switching perspectives during a task with both egocentric and allocentric demands. Method: A visual perspective taking task requiring responses from both the egocentric and allocentric perspective, across both perspective tracking (line-of-sight judgements) and perspective taking (embodied rotation) tasks, was completed by 126 healthy young adults. Fifty-nine were of Singaporean East Asian cultural background and 67 were Australian...
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lizzie21: RT @AKMneuro: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/LJY1nodzIa via @OSFra…
evve39: RT @AKMneuro: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/LJY1nodzIa via @OSFra…
RoshRand: RT @AKMneuro: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/LJY1nodzIa via @OSFra…
AKMneuro: RT @PsyArXivBot: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/dBzALK6XdD
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2.009 Mikeys
#5. Is there empirical support for probabilistic mental representations? A case within visual perception
Omer Daglar Tanrikulu, Andrey Chetverikov, Sabrina Hansmann-Roth, Arni Kristjansson
Recent accounts of perception and cognition propose that the brain represents information probabilistically. While this assumption is common, empirical support for such probabilistic representations has recently been criticized. It has been argued that due to methodological limitations of perceptual experiments, probabilistic theories only provide a model for perceptual decisions, but not perception itself (Block 2018). Moreover, results showing that the visual system represents sensory uncertainty can be explained by non-probabilistic or summary statistical accounts that rely on correlations between stimulus uncertainty and inner visual states (Rahnev, 2017; Block 2018). Here, we argue that a recently proposed psychophysical method, Feature Distribution Learning (FDL), provides promising evidence for probabilistic representations by sidestepping these recent criticisms. The method uses priming and role-reversal effects in visual search. Observers’ search times reveal the structure of perceptual representations in which the...
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Hilary_Barth: Ooh, interesting. "Is there empirical support for probabilistic mental representations? A case within visual perception" https://t.co/yC4EfIfF4T via @OSFramework
ralfer: Here's a new preprint from my collaborators at @IceVisLab, Daglar Tanrikulu, Sabrina Hansmann-Roth, & Arni Kristjansson with me on board. Here Daglar explores more philosophical aspects of our work with probabilistic visual ensembles https://t.co/6OZdgdTQlR 1/3
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2.008 Mikeys
#6. All Mighty Power? Clarifying the Relationship between Power and False Positives
František Bartoš, Maximilian Maier
The replication crisis in psychology led to an increased emphasis on high statistical power. In this context, we noted two problematic conceptions. Firstly, the misconception that power and the probability of a false positive are related for any individual study and, secondly, an overemphasis on the importance of power regarding the false positive rate (FPR). Thus, the focus of this paper is twofold. We reiterate the concepts of false positives, power, and FPR to improve their understanding and reduce future misconceptions. In addition, we investigate how the trade-off between significance level and power influences FPR. We demonstrate that reducing the significance level is more efficient than increasing power in reducing the FPR. We suggest that researchers interested in reducing the FPR should decrease the significance level rather than increase power. In other words, justifications of high power based only on the FPR are invalid.
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mdelacre1: https://t.co/ArkcU0kXrA Very instructive preprint from Maier (@MaxMaier42) and Bartoš explaining that the alpha level impacts much more the false positive rate than does power.
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2.006 Mikeys
#7. Idiographic Traits: A Return to Allportian Approaches to Personality
Emorie D Beck, Joshua J. Jackson
Since its beginnings, personality psychologists have pursued both nomothetic and idiographic questions, with nomothetic approaches capturing a majority of attention in the last century. This paper demonstrates how recent measurement and modeling techniques provide an avenue for testing idiographic propositions about the dynamic features of a personality system. Findings indicate that people have unique structures of personality and that these structures are sensitive to situations people encounter. At the same time, these unique, mutable systems show longitudinal consistency for some, but not all, people.
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EmorieBeck: Excited to share our recently accepted at Current Directions in @PsychScience "Idiographic Traits: A Return to Allportian Approaches to Personality" (https://t.co/44ghb2tEUj) @jackson_josh_ #idiographic #personality #psychology #dynamics https://t.co/q7aHUgDsFW
kaihorstman: RT @PsyArXivBot: Idiographic Traits: A Return to Allportian Approaches to Personality https://t.co/eA5Mc3FZqK
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2.003 Mikeys
#8. The Possibilities of Aloneness and Solitude: Developing an Understanding Framed through the Lens of Human Motivation and Needs
Thuy-vy Nguyen, Netta Weinstein, Richard Ryan, Edward L. Deci
In advancing the study of aloneness, we have distinguished between being alone among others, being alone but doing an activity, and being alone without an activity, referring to the latter as solitude. In this research program we first examined how being alone influences affective regulation and mood, highlighting one function of aloneness, namely to reduce arousal, calming both activated positive and negative emotions. These findings suggest that aloneness is a way of being “off line” and may have regulatory implications. Second, we also looked at people's motivation for being alone both with activities or in solitude, discussing findings to demonstrate the when engaged in solo activities, motivation for being alone strongly colours experiences with being alone as well as with the activities. Third, we distinguished individual differences in preference for spending time alone over with others, which does not specify whether they would find time alone valuable or enjoyable, from the experiences of autonomy for being alone, which...
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thuyvytnguyen: My 1st exp writing a chapter (quite dif. from writing an empirical article for me) discuss works w/ Netta Weinstein,@richardmryan3,& Edward Deci. Hope this sparks interesting reflections about how solitude and time alone is experienced https://t.co/hODKYPXv5A via @OSFramework
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2.002 Mikeys
#9. Distribution of facial resemblance in romantic couples suggests both positive and negative assortative processes influence human mate choice
Iris J Holzleitner, Kieran J. O'Shea, Vanessa Fasolt, Anthony J Lee, Lisa DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones
Previous research suggests that humans show positive assortative mating, i.e. tend to pair up with partners that are similar to themselves in a range of traits, including facial appearance. Facial appearance can function as a cue to genetic similarity and plays a critical role in human mate choice. Evidence for positive assortative mating for facial appearance has largely come from studies showing people can match pictures of couples’ faces at levels greater than chance and that facial photographs of couples are rated to look more similar than those of non-couples. However, interpreting results from matching studies as evidence of positive assortative mating for facial appearance is problematic, since this measure of perceived compatibility does not necessarily reflect actual physical similarity, and may be orthogonal to, or even negatively correlated with, physical similarity. Even if participants are asked to rate facial similarity directly, it remains unclear which, if any, face shape cues contribute to an increased perception...
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DegenRolf: Some people pair up with partners whose face shape is similar to their own, but others actually opt for dissimilarity. https://t.co/0DAEmbHPdj https://t.co/m9FiaQY4v9
IrisHolzleitner: New preprint on whether there's evidence for 3D face resemblance in WEIRD romantic partners (yes & no). Short manuscript w/ anything but short R notebook (director's cut! bonus features!) Feedback on theoretical & technical aspects much appreciated 🙏 https://t.co/1ZJzlIu9PX https://t.co/P9ppoauwDJ
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2.002 Mikeys
#10. Perspective influences eye movements during real-life conversation: Mentalising about self vs. others in autism
Mahsa Barzy, Heather Ferguson, David Williams
Socio-communication is profoundly impaired among autistic individuals. Difficulties representing others’ mental states have been linked to modulations of gaze and speech, which have also been shown to be impaired in autism. Despite these observed impairments in ‘real-world’ communicative settings, research has mostly focused on lab-based experiments, where the language is highly structured. In a pre-registered experiment, we recorded eye movements and verbal responses while adults (N=50) engaged in a real-life conversation. Conversation topic either related to the self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e.g. "Tell me who is your/your mother’s/Marina’s favourite celebrity and why?”). Results replicated previous work, showing reduced attention to socially-relevant information among autistic participants (i.e. less time looking at the experimenter’s face, and more time looking around the background), compared to typically-developing controls. Importantly, perspective modulated social attention in both groups; talking about an...
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BarzyMahsa: New preprint from me, @hethstar81 and David Williams on how topic of conversation influence eye-movements in real life social interactions (pre-registered). We used mobile eye-tracking to investigate this in autistic and non-autistic adults. https://t.co/kLtumimk1I
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