Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today


2.047 Mikeys
#1. Russian norms for 500 general-knowledge questions
Beatriz Martín Luengo
Normative studies are needed to ensure adequate experimental control. Complex materials such as general-knowledge questions are specially critical because general knowledge can differ enormously from one country to another. In this study we aimed to normativize 500 general-knowledge questions in Russia. Currently there are banks of normative questions in several languages and countries, such as English-USA and Spanish-Spain, but there are no such databases in Russian. We selected 500 questions covering diverse topics and asked 103 participants to answer them by selecting one alternative out of four. They were then asked to rate their confidence in their selection. We provide the statistics for the entire sample group and for female and male participants. This work constitutes the first attempt to create a Russian database of general-knowledge questions. This database can be used to better control experimental conditions in Psychology and Neuroscience experiments.
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2.046 Mikeys
#2. Direct and indirect links between children’s socio-economic status and education: Pathways via mental health, attitude, and cognition
Edwin Dalmaijer, Giacomo Bignardi, Alexander Anwyl-Irvine, Tess A. Smith, Roma Siugzdaite, Stepheni Uh, Amy Johnson, Duncan Astle
A child’s socio-economic status has been independently associated with poorer educational outcomes, slower cognitive development, and mental ill-health. However, while these factors clearly do not operate in a vacuum, testing all within a single study is challenging, and their interrelations thus remain largely unclear. We aimed to close this knowledge gap by developing a comprehensive tablet-based assessment of developmental variables in a sample of 519 children aged 7-9 years. We employed clustering algorithms to show that children do not group into discrete phenotypes. We then cast the broad range of measured variables as a network to explore the psychological architecture of cognitive, educational, mental health, and several environmental factors. Educational outcomes (reading and maths fluency) were directly related to cognition (short-term memory, number sense, and processing speed). By contrast, mental health (anxiety and depression symptoms) and attitudes (conscientious, grit, and growth mindset) showed indirect...
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cliffmanning: 'socio-economic status acts as the great unequaliser through its direct relations with all developmental outcomes' Direct and indirect links between children’s socio-economic status and education: https://t.co/2ZnhzH1J6s #Notwithoutme
esdalmaijer: New preprint! Network analysis in a big sample of children shows that socio-economic status impacts EVERYTHING: education, cognition, mental health, and attitude. Twittering co-authors: @BignardiG, @alexanderirvine, @RSiugzdaite, and @DuncanAstle. Link: https://t.co/oxfFAnPzqY https://t.co/sKG3trZBLx
ThaliaGoldstein: An astounding paper showing something that's often assumed, but not often studied so thoroughly. Dalmaijer et al "Socio-economic status acts as the great unequaliser through its direct relations with all developmental outcomes." https://t.co/GGGjCWyEo2
PsyArXivBot: Direct and indirect links between children's socio-economic status and education: Pathways via mental health, attitude, and cognition https://t.co/wooIIJJoeK
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2.031 Mikeys
#3. Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison
Jessica A. Nejman, Thomas J. Faulkenberry
Fractions present a unique challenge in early mathematics instruction, as they require focusing not on the individual symbols that make up the fraction, but rather a mental combination of the two into a single numerical magnitude. Previous studies have given conflicting accounts of how adults form these complex mental representations. Whereas some studies indicate that mental representations of fractions are holistic and are based upon the fraction’s numerical magnitude, others have indicated support for decomposed processing, where separate representations of the numerator and denominator are formed. In the present study, we tested this decomposed processing account using an implicit priming paradigm. In a series of experimental trials, the comparison of two fraction magnitudes (“which is larger?”) primed a subsequent comparison trial with whole numbers. Using Bayesian analyses, we found that when people compared two fractions with common denominators, they were faster in the subsequent whole number comparison. However, when two...
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tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Written with my former undergraduate student Jessica Nejman. We use Bayesian hypothesis testing and @JASPStats to demonstrate semantic priming in fraction comparison
JASPStats: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
tuebang: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
DrMskiPsychSci: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
LENS_Number: RT @tomfaulkenberry: New preprint (https://t.co/IREex2ezLB) "Implicit Priming Reveals Decomposed Processing in Fraction Comparison". Wri…
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2.022 Mikeys
#4. "Sister, I Love You!" Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation
Manon Berriche, Sacha Altay
Social media like Facebook are harshly criticized for the propagation of health misinformation. Yet, little research has provided in-depth analysis of real-world data to measure the scale of the phenomenon. This article examines an emblematic case of online health misinformation: the Facebook page Santé + Mag, which generates five times more interactions than the combination of the five best-established French media outlets. Based on the literature on cultural evolution, we hypothesized that its huge success can hardly be explained by the misleading nature of its content (H1) but rather by its diffusion of posts containing cognitive attractors that tap into evolved cognitive preferences, such as information related to sexuality, social relations, threat, disgust or negative emotions (H2-6). Drawing from media studies findings, suggesting that Facebook is primarily used to connect with friends and family, we hypothesized that the popularity of Santé + Mag could be driven by Internet users’ desire to strengthen their relationships...
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ScPoResearch: "Sister, I love you!" Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation by @berriche_manon @medialab_ScPo & @Sacha_Altay @ENS_ULM https://t.co/QqF2uxwVCE https://t.co/EJtjXeVDLC
acerbialberto: Excellent preprint from @berriche_manon and @Sacha_Altay studying online misinformation from a cultural evolution perspective https://t.co/CFzKfwon2d
berriche_manon: 1/12 🗣️I am excited to share the preprint of my first research article co-written with @Sacha_Altay 🔥 “Sister, I love you!” Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation https://t.co/y306reNaiU
PsyArXivBot: "Sister, I Love You!" Phatic Posts Are More Successful On Facebook Than Health Misinformation https://t.co/XNI38gxi0d
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2.019 Mikeys
#5. All Mighty Power? Clarifying the Relationship between Power and False Positives
František Bartoš, Maximilian Maier
The replication crisis in psychology led to an increased emphasis on high statistical power. In this context, we noted two problematic conceptions. Firstly, the misconception that power and the probability of a false positive are related for any individual study and, secondly, an overemphasis on the importance of power regarding the false positive rate (FPR). Thus, the focus of this paper is twofold. We reiterate the concepts of false positives, power, and FPR to improve their understanding and reduce future misconceptions. In addition, we investigate how the trade-off between significance level and power influences FPR. We demonstrate that reducing the significance level is more efficient than increasing power in reducing the FPR. We suggest that researchers interested in reducing the FPR should decrease the significance level rather than increase power. In other words, justifications of high power based only on the FPR are invalid.
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mdelacre1: https://t.co/ArkcU0kXrA Very instructive preprint from Maier (@MaxMaier42) and Bartoš explaining that the alpha level impacts much more the false positive rate than does power.
PsyArXivBot: All Mighty Power? Clarifying the Relationship between Power and False Positives https://t.co/7VeeS7J6ec
chemistrykaren: RT @PsyArXivBot: All Mighty Power? Clarifying the Relationship between Power and False Positives https://t.co/7VeeS7J6ec
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2.01 Mikeys
#6. Mapping internal states to formal systems: modeling human numerosity estimation
Erik Brockbank, Edward Vul, David Barner
Whether estimating the size of a crowd, thinking about how heavy something will be before trying to lift it, or reviewing a restaurant on a five-star scale, the modern world frequently requires us to navigate between subjective sensory experiences and shared formal systems. This entails mapping internal variables onto a common scale. Here we ask how people manage this in the case of estimating number. We present people with arrays of dots and ask them to report how many dots there are. In Experiment 1, we test predictions made by existing models of how people map from internal representations of numerosity to verbal estimates. We find that people’s estimates do not have a stable coefficient of variation at higher magnitudes, as has previously been suggested, and that the likely cause of this is a “drift” in people’s estimate calibration over many trials. Building on these results, we present a model of the mapping function from subjective numerosity to formal number estimates which relies only on a limited set of previous...
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2.008 Mikeys
#7. Distribution of facial resemblance in romantic couples suggests both positive and negative assortative processes influence human mate choice
Iris J Holzleitner, Kieran J. O'Shea, Vanessa Fasolt, Anthony J Lee, Lisa DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones
Previous research suggests that humans show positive assortative mating, i.e. tend to pair up with partners that are similar to themselves in a range of traits, including facial appearance. Facial appearance can function as a cue to genetic similarity and plays a critical role in human mate choice. Evidence for positive assortative mating for facial appearance has largely come from studies showing people can match pictures of couples’ faces at levels greater than chance and that facial photographs of couples are rated to look more similar than those of non-couples. However, interpreting results from matching studies as evidence of positive assortative mating for facial appearance is problematic, since this measure of perceived compatibility does not necessarily reflect actual physical similarity, and may be orthogonal to, or even negatively correlated with, physical similarity. Even if participants are asked to rate facial similarity directly, it remains unclear which, if any, face shape cues contribute to an increased perception...
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DegenRolf: Some people pair up with partners whose face shape is similar to their own, but others actually opt for dissimilarity. https://t.co/0DAEmbHPdj https://t.co/m9FiaQY4v9
IrisHolzleitner: New preprint on whether there's evidence for 3D face resemblance in WEIRD romantic partners (yes & no). Short manuscript w/ anything but short R notebook (director's cut! bonus features!) Feedback on theoretical & technical aspects much appreciated 🙏 https://t.co/1ZJzlIu9PX https://t.co/P9ppoauwDJ
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2.007 Mikeys
#8. Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis
Andrew Martin, Jasmine Huang, Peter Su, Lori Matuschka, Marcus Meinzer
Background: Mixed results have been presented regarding cultural differences in perspective taking. Two competing theories have been put forward that suggest interdependent self-construal, as observed in people from East Asian cultural backgrounds, would be associated with either worse perspective taking due to self-other mergence (representational hypothesis) or better perspective taking due to greater attention to others (attentional hypothesis), compared with people from Western countries with more independent self-construal. Research to date has been limited and no study to date has focused on switching perspectives during a task with both egocentric and allocentric demands. Method: A visual perspective taking task requiring responses from both the egocentric and allocentric perspective, across both perspective tracking (line-of-sight judgements) and perspective taking (embodied rotation) tasks, was completed by 126 healthy young adults. Fifty-nine were of Singaporean East Asian cultural background and 67 were Australian...
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lizzie21: RT @AKMneuro: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/LJY1nodzIa via @OSFra…
evve39: RT @AKMneuro: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/LJY1nodzIa via @OSFra…
RoshRand: RT @AKMneuro: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/LJY1nodzIa via @OSFra…
AKMneuro: RT @PsyArXivBot: Cultural differences in perspective switching: support for the representational hypothesis https://t.co/dBzALK6XdD
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2.004 Mikeys
#9. Idiographic Traits: A Return to Allportian Approaches to Personality
Emorie D Beck, Joshua J. Jackson
Since its beginnings, personality psychologists have pursued both nomothetic and idiographic questions, with nomothetic approaches capturing a majority of attention in the last century. This paper demonstrates how recent measurement and modeling techniques provide an avenue for testing idiographic propositions about the dynamic features of a personality system. Findings indicate that people have unique structures of personality and that these structures are sensitive to situations people encounter. At the same time, these unique, mutable systems show longitudinal consistency for some, but not all, people.
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EmorieBeck: Excited to share our recently accepted at Current Directions in @PsychScience "Idiographic Traits: A Return to Allportian Approaches to Personality" (https://t.co/44ghb2tEUj) @jackson_josh_ #idiographic #personality #psychology #dynamics https://t.co/q7aHUgDsFW
kaihorstman: RT @PsyArXivBot: Idiographic Traits: A Return to Allportian Approaches to Personality https://t.co/eA5Mc3FZqK
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2.003 Mikeys
#10. Investigating the Practical Consequences of Model Misfit in Unidimensional IRT Models
Daniela-Ramona Crișan, Jorge Tendeiro, Rob Meijer
In this chapter, the practical consequences of violations of unidimensionality on selection decisions in the framework of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models are investigated based on simulated data. The factors manipulated include the severity of violations, the proportion of misfitting items, and test length. The outcomes that were considered are the precision and accuracy of the estimated model parameters, the correlations of estimated ability (θ-hat) and number-correct (NC) scores with the true ability (θ), the ranks of the examinees and the overlap between sets of examinees selected based on either θ, θ-hat, or NC scores, and the bias in criterion-related validity estimates. Results show that the θ-hat values were unbiased by violations of unidimensionality, but their precision decreased as multidimensionality and the proportion of misfitting items increased; the estimated item parameters were robust to violations of un dimensionality. The correlations between θ, θ-hat, and NC scores, the agreement between the...
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