Top 10 Eartharxiv Papers Today


2.001 Mikeys
#1. A machine learning approach to tungsten prospectivity modelling using knowledge-driven feature extraction and model confidence
Christopher Yeomans, Robin Shail, Stephen Grebby, Vesa Nykänen, Maarit Middleton, Paul Lusty
Novel mineral prospectivity modelling presented here applies knowledge-driven feature extraction to a data-driven machine learning approach for tungsten mineralisation. The method emphasises the importance of appropriate model evaluation and develops a new Confidence Metric to generate spatially refined and robust exploration targets. The data-driven Random Forest™ algorithm is employed to model tungsten mineralisation in SW England using a range of geological, geochemical and geophysical evidence layers which include a depth to granite evidence layer. Two models are presented, one using standardised input variables and a second that implements fuzzy set theory as part of an augmented feature extraction step. The use of fuzzy data transformations mean feature extraction can incorporate some user-knowledge about the mineralisation into the model. The commonly subjective approach is guided using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve tool where transformed data are compared to known training samples. The modelling is...
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SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #MineralExploration and using fuzzy variables and investigate model confidence in #spatial data. Hope to be accepted in @GeosciFrontiers! #geology #openscience https://t.co/4VubgPI0rG
EarthArXiv: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
ajmartin1991: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
Max_Lyashko: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
hsrhughes: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
MDSG_UK: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
geoscienceSW: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
l_c_carter: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
ChiaLikes: RT @SWgeoscience: My first #preprint is now live on the @EarthArXiv server: https://t.co/1u9SKN81r5 We look at #MachineLearning for #Miner…
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1.999 Mikeys
#2. Stronger Atlantic hurricanes: Validating Elsner et al. (2008)
James Elsner
Using satellite derived wind speed estimates from tropical cyclones over the 25-year period between 1981 and 2006 our earlier research showed the strongest hurricanes getting stronger. They found 15% of all named storms across the North Atlantic had lifetime maximum wind speeds exceeding 48.9 m/s with an upward trend of .63 m/s/yr in this quantile wind speed. They related the increase in hurricane intensity to a rise in ocean temperatures consistent with theory. The oceans have continued to warm since that paper was published so we predict that the upward trend in the intensity of the strongest hurricanes has continued. Here we show that the 85th quantile lifetime maximum wind speed has increased by 5 m/s, which matches precisely an extrapolation of the trend from the earlier period. The analysis raises the question of why the earlier work was largely ignored (and discounted) when writing "state-of-the-knowledge" reports on hurricanes and climate change since its publication.
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JBElsner: New science letter @EarthArXiv https://t.co/BUXXXFTqOz Elsner et al. (2008) 13 years hence.
EarthArXiv: RT @JBElsner: New science letter @EarthArXiv https://t.co/BUXXXFTqOz Elsner et al. (2008) 13 years hence.
AGrinsted: RT @JBElsner: New science letter @EarthArXiv https://t.co/BUXXXFTqOz Elsner et al. (2008) 13 years hence.
SafeClimate: RT @JBElsner: New science letter @EarthArXiv https://t.co/BUXXXFTqOz Elsner et al. (2008) 13 years hence.
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1.998 Mikeys
#3. No support for carbon storage of >1000 GtC in northern peatlands
Zicheng Yu, Fortunat Joos, Thomas K. Bauska, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hubertus Fischer, Julie Loisel, Victor Brovkin, Gustaf Hugelius, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Thomas Kleinen
Northern peatlands store large amounts of carbon (C) and have played an important role in the global carbon cycle since the Last Glacial Maximum. Most northern peatlands have established since the end of the deglaciation and accumulated C over the Holocene, leading to a total present-day stock of 500 ± 100 GtC. This is a consolidated estimate, emerging from a diversity of methods. Recently, Nichols and Peteet (2019 Nature Geoscience 12: 917-921) presented an estimate of the northern peat C stock of 1055 GtC—exceeding previous estimates by a factor of two. Here, we argue that this is an overestimate, caused by systematic bias introduced by their inclusion of data that is not representative for the major peatland regions and of records that lack direct measurements of C density. Furthermore, we argue that their estimate cannot be reconciled within the constraints offered by ice-core and marine records of stable C isotopes and estimated contributions from other processes that affected the terrestrial C storage during the Holocene.
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1.998 Mikeys
#4. Accelerating numerical wave-propagation using wavefield adapted meshes, Part I: Forward and adjoint modelling
Martin van Driel, Christian Boehm, Lion Krischer, Michael Afanasiev
An order of magnitude speed-up in finite-element modelling of wave propagation can be achieved by adapting the mesh to the anticipated space-dependent complexity and smoothness of the waves. This can be achieved by designing the mesh not only to respect the local wavelengths, but also the propagation direction of the waves depending on the source location, hence by anisotropic adaptive mesh refinement. Discrete gradients with respect to material properties as needed in full waveform inversion can still be computed exactly, but at greatly reduced computational cost. In order to do this, we explicitly distinguish the discretization of the model space from the discretization of the wavefield and derive the necessary expressions to map the discrete gradient into the model space. While the idea is applicable to any wave propagation problem that retains predictable smoothness in the solution, we highlight the idea of this approach with instructive 2D examples of forward as well as inverse elastic wave propagation. Furthermore, we apply...
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1.998 Mikeys
#5. What sets the heat content of Southern Ocean mode water formation regions?
Emma J.D. Boland, Dan Jones, Andrew Meijers, Simon Josey
The Southern Ocean (SO) is a crucial region for the global ocean uptake of heat and carbon. There are large uncertainties in the observations of fluxes of heat and carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean mixed layer, which leads to large uncertainties in the amount entering into the global overturning circulation. In order to better understand where and when fluxes of heat and momentum have the largest impact on near-surface heat content, we use an adjoint model to calculate the linear sensitivities of heat content in SO mode water formation regions to surface fluxes. We find that the heat content of these regions is most sensitive to recent, local heat fluxes, and to non-local wind stress fluxes on the order of one to eight years previously. This is supported by the calculation of sensitivities to kinematic potential temperature changes, which reveal the sources of the mode water formation regions, and by sensitivities to dynamic potential temperature changes, which reveal dynamic links with boundary currents, the ACC, Kelvin...
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emmajdboland: What sets the heat content of Southern Ocean mode water formation regions? Check out our new preprint available here: https://t.co/CvY2SW56jd via @OSFramework With co-authors @danjonesocean @amidgeandrew and Simon Josey of @NOCnews #southernocean
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1.998 Mikeys
#6. The economic implications of using a truly preindustrial climate baseline
Dmitry Yumashev, Christopher Brierley
The pervasive impacts of climate change can result in scientific decisions having unforeseen societal implications. To demonstrate this, we explore the global and regional economic implications of adopting an earlier preindustrial baseline of 1400-1800 for climate policy targets instead of the commonly used early industrial period of 1850-1900 for which we have observational data. Because of early industrial emissions, the 1400-1800 period was slightly cooler than the 1850-1900 baseline, leaving less headroom before the Paris temperature target is reached and the associated carbon budget is exhausted. While this increases the mitigation costs of cutting emissions, the lower temperature headroom also reduces the expected residual climate impacts, resulting in a mean net economic saving to the world as a whole. The less developed regions in the global South, which have the lowest historic emissions, would see the biggest savings from adopting the earlier preindustrial baseline. Meanwhile, different blocs in the global North are set...
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1.998 Mikeys
#7. Spatiotemporal connectivity of noise-derived seismic body waves with ocean waves and microseism excitations
Lei Li, Pierre Boue, Michel Campillo
Everywhere on the Earth planet is experiencing tiny but incessant microseisms induced by formidable natural forces, particularly, storm-driven ocean waves. Microseism noise was deemed a nuisance, but now can be turned into signals via the emerging correlation technique. We use a P-type phase recently derived from double-array noise correlations to study the links between global oceanic microseism sources and noise-derived seismic signals. The phase is termed Pdmc in this study. The two correlated seismic arrays locate in the north hemisphere, while the effective sources responsible for the construction of Pdmc signals lie in the south hemisphere. The temporal variations of Pdmc amplitudes are highly correlated with those of the power of effective sources. The Pdmc amplitudes are also correlated with other ineffective southern sources and anti-correlated with the northern sources. We ascribe the correlation with the ineffective southern sources to the spatiotemporal connection of the southern sources. The anti-correlation with...
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1.998 Mikeys
#8. Dreibrodt et al.- Holocene erosion history in central Ukraine
Stefan Dreibrodt, Robert Hofmann, György Sipos, Lorenz Schwark, Michail Videiko, Liudmyla Shatilo, Sarah Martini, Philipp Saggau, Rainer Duttmann, Hans-Rudolf Bork
The younger Quaternary erosion history was reconstructed in a catchment close to the Chalcolithic giant settlement Maidanetske, central Ukraine based on dated sediment sequences. Four trenches and a long percussion drill-core were analyzed in a valley grading from a Loess covered plateau towards the Talianky River. The sediments were dated via a combination of radiocarbon dating, optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) and embedded artefacts. A suspicious non-coincidence between phases of soil erosion and the settlement history at the site over long periods of the Holocene is noticeable and suggests a climatically driven erosion at the site. The detected phases of erosion during the past >20,000 years coincide with global (cal 27.6 +/- 1.3 kyrs BP, 12.0 +/- 0.4 kyrs BP), northern hemispheric (cal 8.5 ± 0.3 kyrs BP), Mediterranean (cal 3.93 ± 0.1 kyrs BP) as well as western to central European (2,700 to 2,000 cal BP) climate anomalies. For these anomalies, characterized by colder than usual conditions in western and central Europe...
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1.998 Mikeys
#9. Quantifying Computational Efficiency of Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Shallow Water Solvers
Nicole Beisiegel, Cristóbal E. Castro, Jörn Behrens
Non-uniform, dynamically adaptive meshes are a useful tool for reducing computational complexities for geophysical simulations that exhibit strongly localised features such as is the case for example for tsunami, hurricane or typhoon prediction. Theoretical insight for mesh-based numerical methods, however, is largely restricted to uniform meshes as they allow for a traditional definition of convergence and computational complexities linearly multiply with mesh resolution. To gain more insight into adaptive meshes and build a theoretical framework for their assessment, we present and discuss a number of mesh metrics that we apply to simulations on an adaptive triangular mesh. The latter is driven by physics-based refinement indicators that capture relevant physical processes and determine the areas of mesh refinement/coarsening. The mesh metrics take into account a number of characteristics of numerical simulations such as numerical errors, spatial resolution, as well as computing time and allow for a novel definition of...
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triangle_mann: 7 years after presenting these ideas at the @NewtonInstitute I am happy to co-author @NicoleBeisiegel's and Cristóbal Castro's article on #adaptive #mesh refinement #AMR efficiency metrics: https://t.co/V9hlKmTQW8
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1.998 Mikeys
#10. Climate driven Holocene erosion in central Ukraine
Stefan Dreibrodt, Robert Hofmann, György Sipos, Lorenz Schwark, Michail Videiko, Liudmyla Shatilo, Sarah Martini, Philipp Saggau, Rainer Duttmann, Hans-Rudolf Bork
The younger Quaternary erosion history was reconstructed in a catchment close to the Chalcolithic giant settlement Maidanetske, central Ukraine based on dated sediment sequences. Four trenches and a long percussion drill-core were analyzed in a valley grading from a Loess covered plateau towards the Talianky River. The sediments were dated via a combination of radiocarbon dating, optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) and embedded artefacts. A suspicious non-coincidence between phases of soil erosion and the settlement history at the site over long periods of the Holocene is noticeable and suggests a climatically driven erosion at the site. The detected phases of erosion during the past >20,000 years coincide with global (cal 27.6 +/- 1.3 kyrs BP, 12.0 +/- 0.4 kyrs BP), northern hemispheric (cal 8.5 ± 0.3 kyrs BP), Mediterranean (cal 3.93 ± 0.1 kyrs BP) as well as western to central European (2,700 to 2,000 cal BP) climate anomalies. For these anomalies, characterized by colder than usual conditions in western and central Europe...
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