Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Microbiology


2.049 Mikeys
#1. ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro
Adam S.B. Jalal, Ngat T. Tran, Tung B.K. Le
In all living organisms, it is essential to transmit genetic information faithfully to the next generation. The SMC-ParAB-parS system is widely employed for chromosome segregation in bacteria. A DNA-binding protein ParB nucleates on parS sites and must associate with neighboring DNA, a process known as spreading, to enable efficient chromosome segregation. Despite its importance, how the initial few ParB molecules nucleating at parS sites recruit hundreds of further ParB to spread is not fully understood. Here, we reconstitute a parS-dependent ParB spreading event using purified proteins from Caulobacter crescentus and show that CTP is required for spreading. We further show that accumulation of ParB requires a closed DNA substrate and that a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator can act as a roadblock to attenuate spreading unidirectionally in vitro. Our biochemical reconstitutions recapitulate many observed in vivo properties of ParB and opens up avenues to investigate the interactions between ParB-parS with ParA and SMC.
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biorxivpreprint: ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro https://t.co/qGuLMPb52o #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro https://t.co/cjxUV67nN3 #biorxiv_micrbio
Herron1664: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro https://t.co/cjxUV67nN3 #biorxiv_micrbio
SmitsLab: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro https://t.co/cjxUV67nN3 #biorxiv_micrbio
dnarepairlab: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro https://t.co/cjxUV67nN3 #biorxiv_micrbio
WanassaB: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: ParB spreading on DNA requires cytidine triphosphate in vitro https://t.co/cjxUV67nN3 #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.042 Mikeys
#2. Ratiometric quorum sensing in bacterial conjugation
Alvaro Banderas, Arthur Carcano, Elisa Sia, Shuang Li, Ariel Lindner
Plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic-resistance and virulence in pathogenic bacteria underlies a major public health issue. Understanding how, in the absence of antibiotic-mediated selection, plasmid-bearing cells avoid being outnumbered by plasmid-free cells, is key to developing counter strategies. Here we quantified responses of the plasmidial sex-pheromone pathway from Enterococcus faecalis to show that the integration of the stimulatory (mate-sensing) and inhibitory (self-sensing) signaling modules from the pCF10 conjugative plasmid, provides a precise measure of the recipient-to-donor ratio, agnostic to variations in population size. Such ratiometric control of conjugation favors vertical plasmid-transfer under low mating likelihood and allows activation of conjugation functions only under high mating likelihood. We further show that this strategy constitutes a cost-effective investment into mating effort, as overstimulation produces unproductive self-aggregation and reductions in the growth rate. A...
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biorxivpreprint: Ratiometric quorum sensing in bacterial conjugation https://t.co/rgo1gBwRpr #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Ratiometric quorum sensing in bacterial conjugation https://t.co/MeChtE7dRD #biorxiv_micrbio
SmitsLab: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: Ratiometric quorum sensing in bacterial conjugation https://t.co/MeChtE7dRD #biorxiv_micrbio
AHarms485: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: Ratiometric quorum sensing in bacterial conjugation https://t.co/MeChtE7dRD #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.036 Mikeys
#3. Electron transfer complexes in the gut dictate high abundance circulating metabolites
Yuanyuan Liu, William Van Treuren, Bi-Huei Hou, Steven K. Higginbottom, Justin L. Sonnenburg, Dylan Dodd
It has long been thought that Clostridium and its relatives couple the oxidation of one substrate to the reduction of another, yielding energy in the former step and re-achieving redox balance with the latter. By probing the genetics of reductive metabolic pathways in the gut resident C. sporogenes, we find unexpectedly that electron transfer complexes are required for the production of reduced metabolites. Physiologic measurements in vitro indicate that the reductive pathways are coupled to ATP formation, revealing that energy is captured not just during substrate oxidation, but also during coupled reduction, accounting for ~40% of the ATP generated in the cell. Electron transfer complex mutants are attenuated for growth in the mouse gut, demonstrating the importance of energy capture during reductive metabolism for gut colonization. Our findings revise a long-standing model for energy capture by Clostridium sp., and they reveal that the production of high-abundance molecules by a commensal bacterium within the host gut is linked...
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biorxivpreprint: Electron transfer complexes in the gut dictate high abundance circulating metabolites https://t.co/pV7c2Gq7pK #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Electron transfer complexes in the gut dictate high abundance circulating metabolites https://t.co/c6YLykbPXv #biorxiv_micrbio
msmjetten: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: Electron transfer complexes in the gut dictate high abundance circulating metabolites https://t.co/c6YLykbPXv #biorxi…
yannickdntremb1: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: Electron transfer complexes in the gut dictate high abundance circulating metabolites https://t.co/c6YLykbPXv #biorxi…
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2.03 Mikeys
#4. GtcA is required for LTA glycosylation in Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a and Bacillus subtilis
Jeanine Rismondo, Talal FM Haddad, Yang Shen, Martin Loessner, Angelika Grundling
The cell wall polymers wall teichoic acid (WTA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are often modified with glycosyl and D-alanine residues. Recent studies have shown that a three-component glycosylation system is used for the modification of LTA in several Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes. In the L. monocytogenes 1/2a strain 10403S, the cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase GtlA is thought to use UDP-galactose to produce the C55-P-galactose lipid intermediate, which is transported across the membrane by an unknown flippase. Next, the galactose residue is transferred onto the LTA backbone on the outside of the cell by the glycosyltransferase GtlB. Here we show that GtcA is necessary for the glycosylation of LTA in L. monocytogenes 10403S and B. subtilis 168 and we hypothesize that these proteins act as C55-P-sugar flippases. With this we revealed that GtcA is involved in the glycosylation of both teichoic acid polymers in L. monocytogenes 10403S, namely WTA with N-acetylglucosamine and LTA with...
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biorxivpreprint: GtcA is required for LTA glycosylation in Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a and Bacillus subtilis https://t.co/tJuN2KGR7r #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: GtcA is required for LTA glycosylation in Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a and Bacillus subtilis https://t.co/U2bO6mFoIU #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.03 Mikeys
#5. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB causes integrin internalization to facilitate crawling of bacteria underneath host cells
Roland Thuenauer, Alessia Landi, Anne Trefzer, Silke Altmann, Sarah Wehrum, Thorsten Eierhoff, Britta Diedrich, Joern Dengjel, Alexander Nystroem, Anne Imberty, Winfried Roemer
The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the fucose-specific lectin LecB, which has been identified as virulence factor. LecB has a tetrameric structure with four opposing binding sites and has been shown to act as crosslinker. Here, we demonstrate that LecB strongly binds to the glycosylated moieties of β1-integrins on the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells and caused rapid integrin endocytosis. Whereas internalized integrins were degraded via a lysosomal pathway, washout of LecB restored integrin cell surface localization, thus indicating a specific and direct action of LecB on integrins to bring about their endocytosis. Interestingly, LecB was able to trigger uptake of active and inactive β1-integrins and also of complete α3β1-integrin - laminin complexes. We provide a mechanistic explanation for this unique endocytic process by showing that LecB has the additional ability to recognize fucose-bearing glycosphingolipids and caused the formation of membrane invaginations on giant unilamellar...
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biorxivpreprint: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB causes integrin internalization to facilitate crawling of bacteria underneath host cells https://t.co/gzXwkC14M4 #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB causes integrin internalization to facilitate crawling of bacteria underneath host cells https://t.co/sFH3Gu3l1U #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.028 Mikeys
#6. Sustained virome diversity in Antarctic penguins and their ticks: geographical connectedness and no evidence for low pathogen pressure
Michelle Wille, Erin Harvey, Mang Shi, Daniel Gonzalez-Acuna, Edward C Holmes, Aeron Hurt
Despite its isolation and extreme climate, Antarctica is home to diverse fauna and associated microorganisms. It has been proposed that the most iconic Antarctic animal, the penguin, experiences low pathogen pressure, accounting for their disease susceptibility in foreign environments. However, there is a limited understanding of virome diversity in Antarctic species, the extent of in situ virus evolution, or how it relates to that in other geographic regions. To test the idea that penguins have limited microbial diversity we determined the viromes of three species of penguins and their ticks sampled on the Antarctic peninsula. Using total RNA-Sequencing we identified 107 viral species, comprising likely penguin associated viruses (n = 13), penguin diet and microbiome associated viruses (n = 82) and tick viruses (n = 8), two of which may have the potential to infect penguins. Notably, the level of virome diversity revealed in penguins is comparable to that seen in Australian waterbirds, including many of the same viral families....
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biorxivpreprint: Sustained virome diversity in Antarctic penguins and their ticks: geographical connectedness and no evidence for low pathogen pressure https://t.co/X9TxGRlJuE #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Sustained virome diversity in Antarctic penguins and their ticks: geographical connectedness and no evidence for low pathogen pressure https://t.co/0WCdvefJKk #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.011 Mikeys
#7. A conserved translation factor is required for optimal synthesis of a membrane protein family in mycobacteria
Skye Fishbein, Ian D Wolf, Charles L Dulberger, Albert Wang, Hasmik Keshishian, Luke Wallace, Steven A Carr, Thomas R Ioerger, Eric J. Rubin, E. Hesper Rego
Ribosomes require the activity of associated GTPases to synthesize proteins. Despite strong evolutionary conservation, the roles of many of these remain unknown. For example, LepA (also known as elongation factor 4) is a ribosome-associated GTPase found in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts, yet its physiological contribution to cell survival is not clear. Recently, we found that loss of lepA in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) altered tolerance to rifampin, a drug that targets a non-ribosomal cellular process. To uncover the determinants of LepA-mediated drug tolerance, we characterized the whole-cell proteomes and transcriptomes of a lepA deletion mutant relative to a wild-type strain. We find that LepA is important for the steady-state abundance of an outer membrane porin, which is integral to nutrient uptake and drug susceptibility. Loss of LepA leads to decreased amount of porin in the membrane, resulting in the drug tolerance phenotype of the lepA mutant. LepA control requires a sequence motif in the 5' region of the...
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biorxivpreprint: A conserved translation factor is required for optimal synthesis of a membrane protein family in mycobacteria https://t.co/WdIkghRpfi #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: A conserved translation factor is required for optimal synthesis of a membrane protein family in mycobacteria https://t.co/gCeEWhVnyw #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.01 Mikeys
#8. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) contributes to Hantaan virus entry into human airway epithelial cells
Jennifer Mayor, Giulia Torriani, Gert Zimmer, Sylvia Rothenberger, Olivier Engler
Hantaviruses are rodent-borne haemorrhagic fever viruses leading to serious diseases. Viral attachment and entry represent the first steps in virus transmission and are promising targets for antiviral therapeutic intervention. Here we investigated receptor use in human airway epithelium of the Old and New World hantaviruses Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Andes virus (ANDV). Using a biocontained recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype platform, we provide first evidence for a role of the cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors of the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) in HTNV and ANDV entry. In line with previous studies, HTNV, but not ANDV, was able to use the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate and αvβ3 integrin as co-receptors. In sum, our studies demonstrate for the first time that hantaviruses use PS receptors and hence apoptotic mimicry to invade human airway epithelium, which may explain why these viruses can easily break the species barrier.
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biorxivpreprint: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) contributes to Hantaan virus entry into human airway epithelial cells https://t.co/eE7SyqR3FS #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) contributes to Hantaan virus entry into human airway epithelial cells https://t.co/SSWqOL3iob #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.01 Mikeys
#9. ScmR, a global regulator of gene expression, quorum sensing, pH homeostasis, and virulence in Burkholderia thailandensis
Servane Le Guillouzer, Marie-Christine Groleau, Florian Mauffrey, Eric Deziel
The nonpathogenic soil saprophyte Burkholderia thailandensis is a member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei-thailandensis-mallei (Bptm) group, which also comprises the closely related human pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. ScmR, a recently identified LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) in B. thailandensis acts as a global transcriptional regulator throughout the stationary phase, and modulates the production of a wide range of secondary metabolites, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-alkylquinoline (HMAQ), virulence in the model host Caenorhabditis elegans , as well as several quorum sensing (QS)-dependent phenotypes. We have investigated the role of ScmR in B. thailandensis strain E264 during the exponential phase. We used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) transcriptomic analyses to identify the ScmR regulon, which was compared to the QS-controlled regulon, showing a considerable overlap between the...
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biorxivpreprint: ScmR, a global regulator of gene expression, quorum sensing, pH homeostasis, and virulence in Burkholderia thailandensis https://t.co/bMIXDOoqlU #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: ScmR, a global regulator of gene expression, quorum sensing, pH homeostasis, and virulence in Burkholderia thailandensis https://t.co/KS7Fn3uJ2d #biorxiv_micrbio
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2.009 Mikeys
#10. The Min system disassembles FtsZ foci and inhibits polar peptidoglycan remodeling in Bacillus subtilis
Yuanchen Yu, Jingshen Zhou, Felix Dempwolff, Joshua Baker, Daniel B Kearns, Stephen C Jacobson
Microfluidic in combination with fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach for quanatitative analysis of bacterial growth. Here we measure parameters of growth and dynamic localization of the cell division initiation protein FtsZ in Bacillus subtilis. Consistent with previous reports, we find that after division FtsZ rings remain at the cell pole and FtsZ ring disassembly coincides with rapid Z-ring accumulation at the midcell. In cells mutated for minD, however, the polar FtsZ rings persist indefinitely, suggesting that the primary function of the Min system is in Z-ring disassembly. The inability to recycle FtsZ monomers in the minD mutant results in maintenance of multiple Z-rings simultaneously, that are restricted by competition for newly synthesized FtsZ. Whereas the parameters of FtsZ dynamics change in the minD mutant, the overall cell cycle remains the same, albeit with elongated cells necessary to accumulate a threshold concentration of FtsZ for promoting medial division. Finally, the minD mutant characteristically...
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biorxivpreprint: The Min system disassembles FtsZ foci and inhibits polar peptidoglycan remodeling in Bacillus subtilis https://t.co/UhPZ9Y7R1H #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: The Min system disassembles FtsZ foci and inhibits polar peptidoglycan remodeling in Bacillus subtilis https://t.co/aRLbhnebwf #biorxiv_micrbio
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