Top 10 Sportrxiv Papers Today in Sport And Exercise Science


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#1. The National Referral Database: An initial overview
James Steele, Matthew Wade, Marie Polley, Robert J. Copeland, Stuart Stokes, Steven Mann
Background: In 2014 The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) called for development of a system to collate local data on exercise referral schemes (ERS) to inform future practice. This database would be used to facilitate continued evaluation of ERS. ‘Big data’ analytics is a current trend in healthcare with the potential to influence decision making. Indeed, the use of health databases can spur scientific investigation and generation of evidence regarding healthcare practice. NICEs recommendation has not yet been met by public health bodies. However, through collaboration between ukactive, ReferAll, a specialist in software solutions for exercise referral, and the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, data has been collated from multiple UK based ERS to generate one of the largest databases of its kind and move towards meeting NICEs recommendation. Method: This paper describes the formation of The National Referral Database, its structure including outcome measures, data cleaning processes, and in...
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 8809
Unqiue Words: 2753

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#2. The overlooked, understudied, and under-reported benefits of low doses of physical activity for mental health, and a reminder to not forget about sedentary behavior
Paquito Bernard, Romain Ahmed Jérôme, Isabelle Doré, Catherine Sabiston
This commentary suggest that the evidence of optimal physical activity doses for better mental health should be interpreted with caution because sedentary behavior interplays with mental health.
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 804
Unqiue Words: 432

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#3. A commentary on the importance of controlling for medication use within trials on the effects of exercise on depression and anxiety
Paquito Bernard, Carayol Marion
Antidepressant and anxiolytics drugs may confound our understanding of the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression which may occur through biological pathways (some may act synergistically while others may be antagonistic), behavioural pathways (with indications of poorer exercise adherence for drug users), and indirect pathways (driven by deteriorated health status affecting the exercise capabilities of medication users). Therefore, the use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medications needs to be carefully considered in future studies assessing the effects of exercise on anxiety or depression.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 6190
Unqiue Words: 2034

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#4. The Pink Ball in Cricket: A Call to Investigate the Impact of Ball-Colour on Visual-Motor Behaviour
Vishnu Sarpeshkar, Aishwar Dhawan
The sport of cricket has recently undergone a unique transformation with the introduction of day-night test cricket, where the traditional red ball has been substituted with a fluorescent pink ball. Although the concept continues to gain popularity among the wider population, there are growing concerns regarding the visibility of the fast-moving ball along with seemingly little knowledge on how ball-colour may influence the visual-motor behaviour of the players. This paper seeks to highlight some of these concerns by exploring how the pink colour may influence colour contrast and perception, and visual perception. By better understanding the influence of ball-colour on visual-motor behaviour, sporting administrators and researchers alike can work towards further progressing the sport without impacting player safety and/or performance.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 4592
Unqiue Words: 1646

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#5. Order error in the calculation of continuous relative phase
Sina Mehdizadeh, Paul Glazier
The aims of this study were to demonstrate “order error” in the calculation of continuous relative phase (CRP) and to suggest two alternative methods—(i) constructing phase-plane portraits by plotting position over velocity; and (ii), the Hilbert transform—to rectify it. Order error is the change of CRP order between two degrees of freedom (e.g., body segments) when using the conventional method of constructing phase-plane portraits (i.e., velocity over position). Both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal simulated signals as well as signals from human movement kinematics were used to investigate order error and the performance of the two alternative methods. Both methods have been shown to lead to correct results for simulated sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal signals. For human movement data, however, the Hilbert transform is superior for calculating CRP.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 2609
Unqiue Words: 850

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#6. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Hypertrophy: A Closer Look Reveals the Jury is Still Out
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Bret Contreras
This letter is a response to the paper by Damas et al (2017) titled, “The development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy through resistance training: the role of muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis,” which, in part, endeavored to review the role of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hypertrophy. We feel there are a number of issues in interpretation of research and extrapolation that preclude drawing the inference expressed in the paper that muscle damage neither explains nor potentiates increases in muscle hypertrophy. The intent of our letter is not to suggest that a causal role exists between hypertrophy and microinjury. Rather, we hope to provide balance to the evidence presented and offer the opinion that the jury is still very much out as to providing answers on the topic.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 1698
Unqiue Words: 802

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#7. Identification of dropout predictors to a community-based physical activity programme that uses motivational interviewing
Matthew Wade, Nicola Brown, Bernadette Dancy, Steven Mann, Conor Gissane, Anne Majumdar
Background: Participant dropout reduces intervention effectiveness. Predicting dropout has been investigated for Exercise Referral Schemes, but not physical activity (PA) interventions with Motivational Interviewing (MI). Methods: Data from attendees (n=619) to a community-based PA programme utilising MI techniques were analysed using a chi-squared test to determine dropout and attendance group differences. Binary logistic regression investigated the likelihood of dropout before 12-weeks. Results: 44.7% of participants dropped out, with statistical (P<0.05) differences between groups for age, PA, and disability. Regression for each variable showed participants aged 61-70 years (OR=0.28, CI=0.09 to 0.79; P=0.018), >70 years (OR=0.30, CI=0.09 to 0.90; P=0.036), and high PA (OR=0.40, CI=0.20 to 0.75; P=0.006) reduced dropout likelihood. Endocrine system disorders (OR=4.24, CI=1.19 to 19.43; P=0.036) and musculoskeletal disorders (OR=3.14, CI=1.84 to 5.45; P<0.001) increased dropout likelihood. Significant variables were...
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SportRxiv: 🚨NEW SUBMISSION🚨 @_MattWade with his first PhD publication titled "Identification of dropout predictors to a community-based physical activity programme that uses motivational interviewing". Great work and congratulations Matt! 🎊https://t.co/bAN5JdVnXy
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Sample Sizes : [619, 203, 619, 277, 342]
Authors: 6
Total Words: 5192
Unqiue Words: 1905

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#8. Six weeks of sprint interval training improves body composition in healthy young males
Fergus Guppy, Rhys Thatcher, Joanne Wallace
Exercise plays a key role in improving body composition and bone health. This study aims to look at the effects of a sprint interval training (SIT) programme, on markers of skeletal health and body composition measured by daul-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twenty-eight participants (24.4 ± 6.7 y; 1.77 ± 0.09 m; 79.0 ± 14.5 kg; 25.0 ± 2.8 kgm-2) were randomly assigned, into either the SIT or control condition. All participants made a single fasted visit to the laboratory, pre-and post a 6 week SIT intervention, where they underwent a whole body, proximal femur and lumbar spine DXA scan. SIT caused significant reductions in sub-total (-1.08 kg) and lower limb (-0.50 kg) fat mass, as well as on upper- (-1.26%) and lower-limb (-1.70%) percentage fat mass compared with non-exercising controls (0.26, 0.00 kg; -0.15, -0.28 %). There were no significant changes in any bone measures, but trends were observed for differences in femoral neck BMD (1.75%), total proximal femur BMC (5.79%) and area (4.81%) following SIT compared to the...
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Sample Sizes : [9, 9]
Authors: 3
Total Words: 5658
Unqiue Words: 2453

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#9. The effect of exercise referral schemes upon health and wellbeing: Initial observational insights using individual patient data meta-analysis from The National Referral database
Matthew Wade, Steven Mann, Robert J. Copeland, James Steele
Background: Physical activity is widely considered to be effective in the prevention, management, and treatment of many chronic health disorders. Yet, population physical activity levels are relatively low and have changed little in recent years. Sufficient physical activity levels for health and wellbeing often do not arise as result of typical activities of daily living. As such, specific exercise has been argued to be necessary for many, and one approach to providing this has been through exercise referral schemes (ERS). Schemes are aimed at increasing physical activity levels in sedentary individuals with chronic disease, however, evidence is currently lacking as to whether ERSs are effective as currently implemented. Thus, it is of interest to consider broadly whether meaningful changes in health and wellbeing outcomes are observed in people undergoing and ERS. Purpose: To examine if ERSs are associated with meaningful changes in health and wellbeing in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland and Wales from...
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Ekkekakis: If you want your heart broken, read: "Our analysis revealed there may be a general lack of meaningful change over time in participants undergoing exercise referral schemes." Exercise works but ONLY if it's done. So, unless we understand behavior... https://t.co/AmcwvFky2U
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 9567
Unqiue Words: 2849

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#10. Are exercise referral schemes associated with an increase in physical activity? Observational findings using individual patient data meta-analysis from The National Referral database
Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Matthew Wade, Robert J. Copeland, Steven Mann, Gary Liguori, Elizabeth Horton, Alfonso Jimenez
Background: Exercise referral schemes (ERSs) within clinical populations offer inactive individuals the opportunity to increase physical activity levels over the length of scheme. Schemes are also intended to support the treatment of specific health conditions of medically referred individuals through increased physical activity behaviours. The extant literature concerning the impact of exercise referral on physical activity levels is inconsistent. It is of interest researchers, policy makers, commissioners and practitioners to to consider broadly whether meaningful change in physical activity levels are observed in people who undergo exercise referral, to identify potential effective policy actions in supporting active living. Purpose: To examine if ERSs increase physical activity levels in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland and Wales from The National Referral Database. Method: Data were obtained from 5246 participants from 12 different referral schemes. Average age was 53±15 years and, 68% of...
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 6493
Unqiue Words: 1930

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