Top 10 Sportrxiv Papers Today in Sport And Exercise Science


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#1. Jump height is a poor indicator of lower limb maximal power output: theoretical demonstration, experimental evidence and practical solutions
Jean-Benoit Morin, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino
Lower limb maximal power output (Pmax) is a key physical component of performance in many sports. During squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, athletes produce high amounts of mechanical work over a short duration to displace their body mass (i.e. the dimension of mechanical power). Thus, jump height has been frequently used by the sports science and medicine communities as an indicator of Pmax. However, in this article, we contended that SJ and CMJ height are in fact poor indicators of Pmax in trained populations. To support our opinion, we first detailed why, theoretically, jump height and Pmax are not fully related. Specifically, we demonstrated that individual body mass, distance of push-off, optimal loading and force-velocity characteristics confound the jump height-Pmax relationship. We also discussed the poor relationship between SJ or CMJ height and Pmax measured with a force plate based on data reported in the literature, which added to our own experimental evidence. Finally, we discussed the limitations...
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 5670
Unqiue Words: 1938

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#2. Prolonged depression of knee extensor torque complexity following eccentric exercise
Jamie Pethick, Katherine Whiteaway, Samantha Lee Winter, Mark Burnley
Neuromuscular fatigue reduces the complexity of muscle torque output. Exercise-induced muscle damage reduces muscle torque output for considerably longer than high-intensity fatiguing contractions. We therefore hypothesized that muscle damaging eccentric exercise would lead to a persistent decrease in torque complexity, whereas fatiguing exercise would not. Ten healthy participants performed five isometric contractions (6 s contraction, 4 s rest) at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) before, immediately after, 10, 30 and 60 minutes, and 24 hours after eccentric (muscle damaging) and isometric (fatiguing) exercise. Further measures were taken 48 hours and one week after eccentric exercise. Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling were quantified using approximate entropy (ApEn) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Global, central and peripheral perturbations were quantified using MVCs with femoral nerve stimulation. Complexity decreased following both eccentric (ApEn, mean...
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 9149
Unqiue Words: 2733

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#3. A surface electromyographic examination of the serratus anterior during exercise, weight, and order-dependent variations of the bench press
Kyle Boddy, Kyle Rogers, John Scheffey
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the Electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the serratus anterior between the dumbbell bench press and barbell bench press, controlling for weight, order of sets, and dominance of arm. Forty (40) men aged 22.6 ± 2.5 years who were either college or professional baseball pitchers were block randomized into four exercise order-specific subgroups and then performed, depending on the aforementioned order-specific sections, 5-rep sets of both dumbbell and barbell bench press at both 95 and 135 lbs. Each pitcher was instructed in the proper usage of the exercise and assigned a standardized 90-second rest period between the four sets. After receiving the raw EMG signal, proper band-pass filtering, rectifying, moving average-smoothing, and normalization of the EMG amplitude was commenced in order to extract meaningful EMG amplitude results. Statistically significant differences were assessed through a pair of non-parametric tests in the Mann-Wilcox and Wallis-Kruskal test, and the...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 4962
Unqiue Words: 1796

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#4. A commentary on the importance of controlling for medication use within trials on the effects of exercise on depression and anxiety
Paquito Bernard, Carayol Marion
Antidepressant and anxiolytics drugs may confound our understanding of the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression which may occur through biological pathways (some may act synergistically while others may be antagonistic), behavioural pathways (with indications of poorer exercise adherence for drug users), and indirect pathways (driven by deteriorated health status affecting the exercise capabilities of medication users). Therefore, the use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medications needs to be carefully considered in future studies assessing the effects of exercise on anxiety or depression.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 6190
Unqiue Words: 2034

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#5. KABADDI Analytics
Manojkumar Parmar
Kabaddi is a contact team sport of Indian-origin. It is a highly strategic game and generates a significant amount of data due to its rules. However, data generated from kabaddi tournaments has so far been unused, and coaches and players rely heavily on intuitions to make decisions and craft strategies. This paper provides a quantitative approach to the game of kabaddi. The research derives outlook from an analysis performed on data from the 3rd Standard-style Kabaddi World Cup 2016, organised by the International Kabaddi Federation. The dataset, which consists of 66 entries over 31 variables from 33 matches, was manually curated. This paper discusses and provides a quantitative perspective on traditional strategies and conceptions related to the game of kabaddi such as attack and defence strategies. Multiple hypotheses are built and validated using student’s t-test. This paper further provides a quantitative approach to profile an entire tournament to gain a general understanding of the strengths of various teams. Additionally,...
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 6229
Unqiue Words: 2109

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#6. The Pink Ball in Cricket: A Call to Investigate the Impact of Ball-Colour on Visual-Motor Behaviour
Vishnu Sarpeshkar, Aishwar Dhawan
The sport of cricket has recently undergone a unique transformation with the introduction of day-night test cricket, where the traditional red ball has been substituted with a fluorescent pink ball. Although the concept continues to gain popularity among the wider population, there are growing concerns regarding the visibility of the fast-moving ball along with seemingly little knowledge on how ball-colour may influence the visual-motor behaviour of the players. This paper seeks to highlight some of these concerns by exploring how the pink colour may influence colour contrast and perception, and visual perception. By better understanding the influence of ball-colour on visual-motor behaviour, sporting administrators and researchers alike can work towards further progressing the sport without impacting player safety and/or performance.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 4592
Unqiue Words: 1646

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#7. Mechanical Misconceptions: Have we lost the "mechanics" in "biomechanics"?
Andrew Vigotsky, Jason Lake, Richard N. Hinrichs
In theory, everything in biomechanics stems from two disciplines, physics and biology. While a number of papers, editorials, letters to the editor, and even a review have addressed the misapplication of mechanical principles, the misapplication of the basic principles of physics in the field of biomechanics continues. There are three principles, specifically, that have been misapplied that we address: 1) reaction forces as they pertain to joint reaction forces; 2) the treatment of scalar quantities with direction; and 3) the terms weightlessness, microgravity, hypergravity, and unweighted.
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 4851
Unqiue Words: 1973

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#8. Order error in the calculation of continuous relative phase
Sina Mehdizadeh, Paul Glazier
The aims of this study were to demonstrate “order error” in the calculation of continuous relative phase (CRP) and to suggest two alternative methods—(i) constructing phase-plane portraits by plotting position over velocity; and (ii), the Hilbert transform—to rectify it. Order error is the change of CRP order between two degrees of freedom (e.g., body segments) when using the conventional method of constructing phase-plane portraits (i.e., velocity over position). Both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal simulated signals as well as signals from human movement kinematics were used to investigate order error and the performance of the two alternative methods. Both methods have been shown to lead to correct results for simulated sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal signals. For human movement data, however, the Hilbert transform is superior for calculating CRP.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 2609
Unqiue Words: 850

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#9. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Hypertrophy: A Closer Look Reveals the Jury is Still Out
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Bret Contreras
This letter is a response to the paper by Damas et al (2017) titled, “The development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy through resistance training: the role of muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis,” which, in part, endeavored to review the role of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hypertrophy. We feel there are a number of issues in interpretation of research and extrapolation that preclude drawing the inference expressed in the paper that muscle damage neither explains nor potentiates increases in muscle hypertrophy. The intent of our letter is not to suggest that a causal role exists between hypertrophy and microinjury. Rather, we hope to provide balance to the evidence presented and offer the opinion that the jury is still very much out as to providing answers on the topic.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 1698
Unqiue Words: 802

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#10. Cognitive (executive) load does not affect self-paced cycling exercise performance.
Darias Holgado, Mikel Zabala, Daniel Sanabria
Objectives: to test the hypothesis that cognitive load (low vs. high load) during 20’ self-paced cycling exercise affect physical performance. Design: A pre-registered (https://osf.io/qept5/), randomized, within-subject design experiment. Methods: 28 trained and experienced male cyclists completed a 20’ time-trial cycling self-paced exercise in two separate session, corresponding to two working memory load conditions: 1-back or 2-back. We measured, power output, heart rate, RPE and mental fatigue. Results: Bayes analyses revealed extreme evidence for the 2-back task being more difficult than the 1-back task (BF10 = 4490). However, the observed data only showed anecdotal evidence for the alternative hypothesis for the power output (BF10= 1.52), but showed moderate evidence for the null hypothesis for the heart rate (BF10 = 0.172), anecdotal evidence for RPE (BF10 = 0.72) and anecdotal evidence for mental fatigue (BF10 = 0.588). Conclusions: Our data challenge the idea that self-paced exercise is regulated by top-down processing...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 4880
Unqiue Words: 1994

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