### Top 10 Socarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences

##### #1. Understanding the Social Mobility Chances of Children from Working- Class Backgrounds in Britain: How Important are Cognitive Ability and Locus of Control?
###### Bastian A. Betthäuser, Mollie Bourne, Erzsebet Bukodi
Research in social stratification has shown that children from working-class backgrounds tend to obtain substantially lower levels of educational attainment and lower labour market positions than children from higher social class backgrounds. However, we still know relatively little about the micro-level processes that account for this empirical regularity. Our study examines the roles of two individual-level characteristics—cognitive ability and locus of control—in mediating the effect of individuals’ parental class background on their educational attainment and social class position in Britain. We find that cognitive ability mediates only about 35 per cent of the total parental class effect on educational attainment and only about 20 per cent of the total parental class effect on respondents’ social class position, net of their educational attainment. These findings contradict existing claims that differences in the life chances of children from different social class backgrounds are largely due to differences in cognitive...
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: Understanding the Social Mobility Chances of Children from Working- Class Backgrounds in Britain: How Important are Cognitive Ability and Locus of Control? https://t.co/41ft0AsWHX
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##### #2. Measuring the availability of “good jobs” in the United States for working-class men during the Great Recession and recovery
###### Janette Dill, Robert Francis
In this study, we use the 2004, 2008, and 2014 panels of the Survey for Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to measure the impact of the Great Recession and recovery on the availability of “good jobs” for men without a college degree. We define “good jobs” using a cluster of job quality measures, including wage thresholds of at least $15,$20, or \$25 per hour, employer-based health insurance, full-time work hours, and protection from layoff. We find that the Great Recession and aftermath (2008-2015) resulted in a 1-10% reduced probability of being in a “good job” across most industries, with especially large losses in manufacturing, retail, transportation, and food service (compared to 2004-2007). In the 2014 panel, there is only a slight post-recession recovery in the predicted probability of being in a “good job,” and the probability of being in a “good job” remains well below 2004 levels. Although the probability of being on layoff from a “good jobs” does decrease substantially in the 2014 cohort as compared to the rate of...
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: Measuring the availability of "good jobs" in the United States for working-class men during the Great Recession and recovery https://t.co/XWyH9TbxBg
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##### #3. Behavioral Biases and Legal Compliance: A Field Experiment
###### Natalia Emanuel, Helen Ho
Many defendants fail to appear (FTA) for court despite the prospect of legal consequences. In a field experiment, we compare the effectiveness of text message reminders to an intervention that combines reminders with personalized assistance. The treatments are equally effective, reducing FTA by 8 percentage points from a 21 percent baseline rate. However, personalized assistance facilitates greater take-up of court accommodations such as rescheduling and payment plans. For more serious cases, the treatments reduce arrests by two percentage points, implying FTAs have a large effect on arrests. For the least serious cases, an FTA has small effects on fines.
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: Behavioral Biases and Legal Compliance: A Field Experiment https://t.co/OpTVkGeggw
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##### #4. Changing Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Discrimination from the 1990s to the 2010s in the United States
###### Markus Jokela, Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell
Individuals with low socioeconomic status have a higher risk of experiencing daily discrimination, that is, receiving unfair and disrespectful treatment from others. Social trends in economic inequality suggest that the life circumstances of individuals with low socioeconomic status have not improved with the same rate as those with high socioeconomic status. We examined whether the prevalence of class discrimination in the United States has changed in the last two decades. Data were from the original Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study with data collections in 1995-1996 (n=2,931) and 2004-2005 (n=1,708), and the new MIDUS Refresher sample from 2011-2014 (n=2,543). Socioeconomic status was assessed with education, occupational status, income, and self-reported financial situation. Daily discrimination experiences were assessed with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Socioeconomic status became more strongly associated with discrimination experiences over time: at the 1995-1996 baseline assessment, the difference in daily...
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: Changing Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Discrimination from the 1990s to the 2010s in the United States https://t.co/4xflsTuhwN
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Sample Sizes : [2931, 1708, 2543, 7108, 3487, 950, 757, 1914, 2931]
Authors: 2
Total Words: 4128
Unqiue Words: 1682

##### #5. On the construction of an artificial paradox: A critical commentary on Diefendorf and Bridges' 'On the enduring relationship between masculinity and homophobia'
###### Mark McCormack
The social trend of decreasing homophobia and liberalising attitudes toward homosexuality is a contentious sociological issue. In a recent article in this journal, Diefendorf and Bridges contend that differences in findings of quantitative and qualitative research related to masculinities and homophobia demand new theories and methods to chart the enduring relationship between homophobia and masculinity. In this critical commentary, I demonstrate the flaws of the methodological framing and refute the characterization of qualitative literature provided. I argue that the theoretical errors in the original article are a result of inattention to social and historical context. Drawing attention to problematic citation practices, I call for critical approaches that recognize both positive social change and contexts where problematic dynamics persist.
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: On the construction of an artificial paradox: A critical commentary on Diefendorf and Bridges' 'On the enduring relationship between masculinity and homophobia' https://t.co/eXlH6XuuxW
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##### #6. Fear and Legitimacy in São Paulo, Brazil: Police-Citizen Relations in a High Violence, High Fear City
###### Jonathan Jackson, Krisztián Pósch, Thiago Rodrigues Oliveira, Ben Bradford, Silvia M. Mendes, Ariadne Lima Natal, André Zanetic
In this paper we examine consensual and coercive police-citizen relations in São Paulo, Brazil. According to procedural justice theory, legitimacy operates as part of a virtuous circle, whereby normatively appropriate police behavior encourages public self-regulation and pro-active cooperation, which then reduces the need for coercive forms of social control. Tests of the theory in the US, UK, Australia and elsewhere typically pit normative versus instrumental accounts of crime-control policy against one another. But can consensual and coercive police-citizen power relations be so easily disentangled in a city in which many people fear crime, where some people fear police but tolerate extreme police violence, and where the image of the police as “just another (violent) gang” seems still to have significant cultural currency? Our analysis of the composition, predictors and potential consequences of police legitimacy highlights points of similarity and difference in police-citizen relations in this high violence, high fear city of...
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##### #7. Gender, Parenthood, and Hiring Intentions in Sex-Typical Jobs: A Survey Experiment
###### Gabriele Mari, Ruud Luijkx
We ran a survey experiment with Dutch employers to investigate hiring discrimination in sex-typical jobs. We ask if women are especially discriminated against when they have children, whether discrimination applies similarly in different occupations, and whether statistical discrimination or status-characteristic theories best account for discriminatory practices. Informed by these theories, we set up our experimental study having employers rate ?fictitious candidates for either a female-typical job (primary-school teacher) or a male-typical job (software engineer). Employers display a slight preference for female candidates all else equal when filling a teacher post, although such bias is less strong for female applicants with children. No such ranking is found for a software engineer vacancy, nor we ?find different salary offers across candidates and across vacancies. Employers do not appear to favour men over women for positions likely to be on the career track, as predicted by statistical discrimination theories, nor expect...
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##### #8. An Examination of Expert Discourse on Human Gene Editing Using Natural Language Processing
###### Micah Musser
This research aims to explore the different ways in which scientists, ethicists, journalists, and official commissions speak to the public about new gene editing technologies. After building and preprocessing datasets of writings from each type of author, I examined frequencies of a number of key words, trained a sentiment classifier based on 5,000 hand-labeled sentences, and explored the type of sentiments used to discuss different issues. Key research questions included the degree of optimism or pessimism expressed by each type of author, the sentiment used in discussions about the global politics of gene editing, and the frequency with which key terms are used by each category of expert.
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##### #9. A Changing Landscape of Health Opportunity in the United States: Increases in the Strength of the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Adult Health Between the 1990’s and the 2010’s
###### Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell, Olivia I. Nichols, Markus Jokela, Eric S. Kim, Elif D. Yildirim, Carol D. Ryff
The strength of the association between childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) and adult health is an important indicator of health stratification and the degree to which health outcomes are determined early in life. However, changes in the strength of this association over historic time are largely unexamined in the United States. Utilizing data from two independent national samples of adults collected 17 years apart (1995 and 2012), the current study examined changes in the strength of the association between childhood SED and adult health. Childhood SED was scored as an aggregate index from measures of parent occupational prestige, childhood poverty exposure, and parent education. Five measures of adult health were considered: BMI, waist circumference, chronic conditions, functional limitations, and self-rated health. Results indicated that the association between childhood SED and all five health outcomes was significantly stronger in the 2012 sample than the 1995 sample, with the magnitude of the association being...
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: A Changing Landscape of Health Opportunity in the United States: Increases in the Strength of the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Adult Health Between the 1990's and the 2010's https://t.co/lFhEerlqsf
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##### #10. Impact of palm oil sustainability certification on village well-being and poverty in Indonesia
###### Truly Santika, Elizabeth Law, Kerrie A Wilson, Freya A. V. St. John, Kimberly Carlson, Holly Gibbs, Courtney L Morgans, Marc Ancrenaz, Erik Meijaard, matthew struebig
The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) has emerged as the world’s largest sustainability standard to tackle social and environmental issues associated with the oil palm industry. To date, however, the effectiveness of RSPO certification remains uncertain, especially for socio-economic objectives. Here we evaluate the impact of certification on village well-being across Indonesia, the world’s largest producer of palm oil, utilizing multi-dimensional poverty data from government village-censuses, and applying a statistical matching approach. We found certification to be associated with improvements in poverty levels in villages where livelihoods were primarily market-based, but this was not the case in villages where subsistence livelihoods were previously dominant. As most certified plantations in Sumatra and Papua had been developed in market-orientated villages, the overall impact of certification on these islands was positive overall. In Kalimantan, however, certification was much less effective, as large proportions of...
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socarxivpapers: #SocArXiv: Impact of palm oil sustainability certification on village well-being and poverty in Indonesia https://t.co/71pec5k3KQ
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