Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


2.009 Mikeys
#1. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Schools
Tyler L. Renshaw
This chapter reviews the status of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) in schools by raising and answering a handful of key questions relevant to both researchers and practitioners: (1) What are mindfulness and MBI? (2) How are MBI structured and used in schools? (3) How effective are MBI with students and teachers? (4) What is still unknown about MBI in schools? (5) How can MBI be applied within a multitiered system of supports in schools? The chapter concludes by suggesting that enthusiasm for MBI in schools must be checked-and-balanced by a realistic appraisal of the available empirical evidence to promote the best outcomes for students and teachers.
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ty_renshaw: Got a new––and fairly critical––chapter on *#mindfulness-based interventions* coming soon in a book on mind–body health in schools. For all ya'll who are interested ... here's the #PREPRINT! Hope this helps contribute to better research and practice. https://t.co/fwukT5IjJW
ty_renshaw: RT @PsyArXivBot: Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Schools https://t.co/z7ELlcwiUx
BillyJansson: RT @PsyArXivBot: Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Schools https://t.co/z7ELlcwiUx
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1.998 Mikeys
#2. Effect of a context shift on the inverse base rate effect
Angus Inkster, Chris Mitchell, René Schlegelmilch, Andy Wills
The Inverse Base Rate Effect (IBRE; Medin and Edelson (1988)) is a non-rational behavioural phenomenon in predictive learning. In the IBRE, participants learn that a stimulus compound AB leads to one outcome and that another compound AC leads to a different outcome. Importantly, AB and its outcome are presented three times as often as AC (and its outcome). On test, when asked which outcome to expect on presentation of the novel compound BC, participants preferentially select the rarer outcome, previously associated with AC. This is irrational because, objectively, the common outcome is more likely. Usually, the IBRE is attributed to greater attention paid to cue C than to cue B, and so is an excellent test for attentional learning models. The current experiment tested a simple model of attentional learning proposed by Le Pelley, Mitchell, Beesley, George, and Wills (2016) where attention paid to a stimulus is determined by its associative strength. This model struggles to capture the IBRE, but a potential solution suggested by the...
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1.998 Mikeys
#3. Impact of health warning labels on snack selection: an online experimental study
Natasha Clarke, Emily Pechey, Eleni Mantzari, Anna Blackwell, Katie De-loyde, Richard Morris, Marcus Munafo, Theresa Marteau, Gareth J Hollands
Background Excessive consumption of energy-dense food increases the risk of obesity, which in turn increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and most non-smoking-related cancers. Health warning labels (HWLs) that communicate the adverse health consequences of excess energy consumption could reduce intake of energy-dense foods. The aim of the current study was to estimate the impact on selection of energy-dense snacks of (a) image-and-text HWLs (b) text-only HWLs and (c) calorie information. Methods A between-subjects, 3 (HWL: image-and-text, text-only, no label) x 2 (calorie information: present, absent), factorial experimental design. Participants (N=4,134) were randomised to view a selection of energy-dense and non-energy-dense snacks with one of five label types or no label. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack in a hypothetical vending machine task. Results The proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack was...
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Authors: 9
Total Words: 9103
Unqiue Words: 2879

1.998 Mikeys
#4. Toward behavioural climate policy: Framing of carbon pricing policy has deep effects on Canadian attitudes and behaviours
Matthew Martin, Jayden Rae, Brooke Struck, Sekoul Krastev
This study looked at the effects of framing and payment structure on the public reception of a carbon pricing policy. The study closely mirrored the design of the Federal backstop of the Pan- Canadian Framework, under which consumers receive a direct payment to offset the carbon taxes collected in their province. There were four key findings. First, framing the payment as an “incentive” increased the likelihood of consumers spending their return on green renovations as opposed to everyday purchases. Alternatively, calling the payment a “rebate” pushed people towards spending the money on everyday expenses.Second, if the policy was designed so that payments were disbursed monthly in smaller amounts, they were more likely to be spent on everyday purchases. Conversely, annual lump sum payments were more likely to be allocated towards savings. Third, there was an interaction effect between framing the payment as a “dividend” and the lump sum annual payment structure; in this case, consumers were much more likely to put the money...
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PsyArXivBot: Toward behavioural climate policy: Framing of carbon pricing policy has deep effects on Canadian attitudes and behaviours https://t.co/g10HOyxiR8
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1.998 Mikeys
#5. Word meaning access: The one-to-many mapping from form to meaning
Jennifer M Rodd
This chapter focuses on the process by which stored knowledge about a word’s form (orthographic or phonological) maps onto stored knowledge about its meaning. This mapping is made challenging by the ambiguity that is ubiquitous in natural language: most familiar words can refer to multiple different concepts. This one-to-many mapping from form to meaning within the lexicon is a core feature of word-meaning access. Fluent, accurate word-meaning access requires that comprehenders integrate multiple cues in order to determine which of a word’s possible semantic features are relevant in the current context. Specifically, word-meaning access is guided by (i) distributional information about the a priori relative likelihoods of different word meanings and (ii) a wide range of contextual cues that indicate which meanings are most likely in the current context.
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tom_hartley: RT @JenniRodd: I appear to have written (another) book chapter on how people access the meanings of words: https://t.co/qnYCD3Bkm9 #NoMor…
JenniRodd: RT @JenniRodd: I appear to have written (another) book chapter on how people access the meanings of words: https://t.co/qnYCD3Bkm9 #NoMor…
DamsonEd: RT @JenniRodd: I appear to have written (another) book chapter on how people access the meanings of words: https://t.co/qnYCD3Bkm9 #NoMor…
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1.998 Mikeys
#6. A computational model of context-dependent encodings during category learning
Paulo Carvalho, Robert Goldstone
Although current exemplar models of category learning are flexible and can capture how different features are emphasized for different categories, they still lack in the flexibility to adapt to local pressures in category learning, such as the effect of different sequences of study. In this paper we introduce a new model of category learning, the Sequential Attention Theory Model (SAT-M), in which the encoding of each presented item is influenced not only by its category assignment (global context) as in other exemplar models, but also by how its properties relate to the properties of temporally neighboring items (local context). We demonstrate that SAT-M is able to capture the effect of local context and predict not only learning but also learners’ attentional patterns during learning.
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Unqiue Words: 1945

1.998 Mikeys
#7. Predictive context biases binocular rivalry onset in children and adults
Christian Valuch, Louisa Kulke
Expectations based on prior knowledge shape perceptual experience, which might also be relevant for high-level perceptual skills such as the ability to understand other peoples’ thoughts and intentions, called Theory of Mind (ToM). We tested whether the extent to which expectations influence perception correlates with individual differences in ToM in children (12–13 years) and adults (18–25 years). In both age groups, perceptual expectations induced by a predictive temporal context reliably modulated the onset of binocular rivalry (BR), on average, to a similar degree. In contrast, adult participants scored better on measures of ToM compared to children. In both groups, we observed considerable interindividual variability regarding the influence of a predictive context on BR, which were closely associated with differences in sensory eye dominance. The influence of expectations on basic visual processes is fully developed at an earlier age, whereas high-level perceptual skills continue to evolve from adolescence to adulthood. The...
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1.998 Mikeys
#8. Beliefs about emotion shift dynamically alongside momentary affect
Jennifer Veilleux, Elise Warner, Danielle Baker, Kaitlyn Chamberlain
This study examined if beliefs about emotion change across emotional contexts in daily life, and investigated whether people with prominent features of borderline personality pathology experience greater shifts in emotion beliefs during emotional states compared to people without borderline features. Undergraduate participants with (n = 49) and without borderline features (n = 50) completed a one week ecological momentary assessment study where 7x/day they provided ratings of affect, nine different beliefs about emotion and indicators of momentary self-efficacy. Results indicated a significant between-person element to emotion beliefs, supporting the notion of beliefs as relatively schematic. In addition, people with borderline features generally experienced greater instability of beliefs over time compared to people without borderline features. In addition, most of the beliefs about emotion shifted with either positive or negative affect. For many of the emotion beliefs, the relationships between affect and belief were...
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Total Words: 12177
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1.998 Mikeys
#9. Inference not Reference: The Price Image Heuristic as an Alternative to Reference Price Theories.
Ryan Hamilton, Oleg Urminsky
Reference price theories have dominated research into how consumers evaluate prices and make price-based choices. Given the widespread acceptance of reference price theories, it is notable that so little consideration has been given to what happens when the central assumption of these theories is violated: how do consumers evaluate prices when they do not have stable, well-defined reference prices?The authors propose an alternative to reference price theories, in which consumers instead use a general cue, specifically, a retailer’s price image, or overall reputation for charging high or low prices, as atop-down inferential heuristic. This alternative account predicts a pattern of price perceptions, price estimates, and choices that cannot be accounted for using prevailing reference price theories. In each of the domains, reference price theories either predict no differences based on retailer price images or predict the opposite of the reported findings. These predictions are tested against those of prevailing reference price...
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Total Words: 15949
Unqiue Words: 3524

1.998 Mikeys
#10. The shape skeleton supports single exemplar categorization in infants
Vladislav Ayzenberg, Stella F. Lourenco
Humans exhibit the remarkable ability to form abstract object representations from few exemplars, a feat not yet matched by state-of-the-art artificial neural networks. Using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we tested whether object learning early in human life is made possible via the medial axis of an object, known as its “shape skeleton”. Shape skeletons may be ideally suited for rapid object learning because they provide a summary description of an object’s internal structure, which is robust to viewpoint changes and noisy contours. Across two experiments, infants (Mage= 9.29 months; N = 82) categorized unfamiliar objects by their skeletons following exposure to a single exemplar. Their performance was robust to changes in the component parts of the objects, differences in image-level properties, and even when the coarse spatial relations of object parts were not diagnostic of category. These findings suggest a robust, and early-developing, perceptual mechanism by which objects are quickly categorized.
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