### Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences

##### #1. On the belief that beliefs should change according to evidence: Implications for conspiratorial, moral, paranormal, political, religious, and science beliefs
###### Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Derek Koehler, Jonathan Albert Fugelsang
Does one’s stance toward evidence evaluation and belief revision have relevance for actual beliefs? We investigate the role of having an actively open-minded thinking style about evidence (AOT-E) on a wide range of beliefs, values, and opinions. Participants indicated the extent to which they think beliefs (Study 1) or opinions (Studies 2 and 3) ought to change according to evidence on an 8-item scale. Across three studies with 1,692 participants from two different sources (Mechanical Turk and Lucid for Academics), we find that our short AOT-E scale correlates negatively with beliefs about topics ranging from extrasensory perception, to respect for tradition, to abortion, to God; and positively with topics ranging from anthropogenic global warming to support for free speech on college campuses. More broadly, the belief that beliefs should change according to evidence was robustly associated with political liberalism, the rejection of traditional moral values, the acceptance of science, and skepticism about religious, paranormal,...
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###### Tweets
GordPennycook: New working paper! "On the belief that beliefs should change according to evidence: Implications for conspiratorial, moral, paranormal, political, religious, and science beliefs" https://t.co/IpoWuCmiVZ Read this thread if you're curious about how I (almost) fucked this one up.
PsyArXivBot: On the belief that beliefs should change according to evidence: Implications for conspiratorial, moral, paranormal, political, religious, and science beliefs https://t.co/iD3jeoKhXd
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 14898
Unqiue Words: 3676

##### #2. No Evidence for Enhancing Prospective Memory with Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation across Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
###### Derek Ellis, Gene Brewer, Memory &amp; Attention Control Laboratory
A standard finding in the event-based prospective memory literature is that focal cues are more often detected than nonfocal cues. The multiprocess view of prospective memory accounts for this result by suggesting that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) mediated executive processes are necessary for nonfocal cue detection while hippocampally mediated spontaneous retrieval processes support detection of focal cues. In agreement with the multiprocess view, previous studies have found that working memory capacity is predictive of prospective memory performance through detection of nonfocal cues, but non-predictive for focal cues. Because the DLPFC is known to support working memory maintenance, we predicted that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC would increase prospective memory cue detection for nonfocal cues when compared with a sham condition. Critically, we also expected an interaction between prospective memory cue type and stimulation such that anodal stimulation would not influence focal...
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###### Tweets
DIYtDCS: No Evidence for Enhancing Prospective Memory with Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation across Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex #tDCS https://t.co/Ech37OMQSj
FriskyAlpaca: New preprint from @RealGeneBrewer @cierarenee and me: "No Evidence for Enhancing Prospective Memory with Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation across Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex". https://t.co/5QO4ZaKIl7
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Sample Sizes : [27, 26, 26, 27]
Authors: 3
Total Words: 6074
Unqiue Words: 1925

##### #3. The dark room problem in predictive processing and active inference, a legacy of cognitivism?
###### Manuel Baltieri, Christopher Buckley
The free energy principle describes cognitive functions such as perception, action, learning and attention in terms of surprisal minimisation. Under simplifying assumptions, agents are depicted as systems minimising a weighted sum of prediction errors encoding the mismatch between incoming sensations and an agent's predictions about such sensations. The dark room'' is defined as a state that an agent would occupy should it only look to minimise this sum of prediction errors. This (paradoxical) state emerges as the contrast between the attempts to describe the richness of human and animal behaviour in terms of surprisal minimisation and the trivial solution of a dark room, where the complete lack of sensory stimuli would provide the easiest way to minimise prediction errors, i.e., to be in a perfectly predictable state of darkness with no incoming stimuli. Using a process theory derived from the free energy principle, active inference, we investigate with an agent-based model the meaning of the dark room problem and discuss some...
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###### Github

A Bayesian cruise controller. A minimal model of velocity regulation for a block on a frictionless surface.

Repository: BayesianCruiseController
User: mbaltieri
Language: Python
Stargazers: 0
Subscribers: 1
Forks: 0
Open Issues: 0
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 6104
Unqiue Words: 1814

##### #4. Face Likeness Affects Face Learning
###### Benjamin Balas, Claire Bailly
Learning to recognize new faces depends critically on learning to cope with the substantial appearance variability that faces are subject to: The same individual can look very different under different viewing conditions. When attempting to match or discriminate between unfamiliar faces, observers tend to misinterpret instances of within-person variability as different exemplars. Exposure to high variability during face learning tends to support better performance in subsequent recognition tasks, and idiosyncratic face variability becomes a part of representations that support accurate face recognition. Though it is clear that the amount of variability is important for learning, it remains an open question whether or not different types of variability support more robust recognition abilities after training. In the present study, we addressed this question by asking observers to complete an incidental learning task in which they were either presented with good likenesses or poor likenesses of target faces. Following this training...
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###### Tweets
bjbalas: New @PsyArxiv lab pre-print! - We examined how likeness quality (good vs. poor) affected observers' ability to learn unfamiliar individuals from ambient face images. Pre-reg info available at @OSF. #facerecognition #visionscience https://t.co/sDPiSFNdMK
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Sample Sizes : [38, 36]
Authors: 2
Total Words: 5716
Unqiue Words: 1629

##### #5. Developmental Trajectories of Event Centrality and Well-Being after Transition to High School
###### Shuhei Iimura
The transition from junior high or middle school to high school can be a stressful turning point for youth development. The role of individual differences in susceptibility to the transition in well-being remains unclear. The current study examined the developmental relation between how central the high school transition is to a student’s identity or life course (i.e., event centrality) and well-being after transition. High school students, including cohorts in 10th to 12th grade (n = 2,265, Mage at Time 1 = 15.9 years, SDage = 0.9 years), participated in a four-wave longitudinal survey for a year, and completed questionnaires assessing event centrality and well-being. Latent growth curve modeling revealed obvious individual differences in the developmental trajectory of event centrality regarding high school transition across the 10th to 12th grades. Increase in the centrality of transition was closely associated with improvement in well-being for each grade progression. Based on our findings, developmental researchers should...
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###### Tweets
Tokyo6Heart: ひさびさに論文submitted. ひとまずunder reviewになってよかった。プレプリントをPsyArXivにはじめてアップしてみた→→ https://t.co/ki9TITTgiA
PsyArXivBot: Developmental Trajectories of Event Centrality and Well-Being after Transition to High School https://t.co/BG2MkuP6LZ
mutopsy: RT @Tokyo6Heart: ひさびさに論文submitted. ひとまずunder reviewになってよかった。プレプリントをPsyArXivにはじめてアップしてみた→→ https://t.co/ki9TITTgiA
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Developmental Trajectories of Event Centrality and Well-Being after Transition to High School https://t.co/BG2MkuP6LZ
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 4907
Unqiue Words: 1550

##### #6. Spoken Word Processing in Bilingual Older Adults: Assessing Within-and Cross-Language Competition using the Visual World Task
###### Debra Titone, Jason Gullifer, Shari Baum
We investigated whether bilingual older adults experience within- and cross-language competition during spoken word recognition similarly to younger adults matched on age of second language (L2) acquisition, objective and subjective L2 proficiency, and current L2 exposure. In a visual world eye-tracking paradigm, older and younger adults, who were French-dominant or English-dominant English-French bilinguals, listened to English words, and looked at pictures including the target (field), a within-language competitor (feet) or cross-language (French) competitor (fille, “girl”), and unrelated filler pictures while their eye movements were monitored. Older adults showed evidence of greater within-language competition as a function of increased target and competitor phonological overlap. There was some evidence of age-related differences in cross-language competition, however, it was quite small overall and varied as a function of target language proficiency. These results suggest that greater within- and possibly cross-language...
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###### Tweets
debra_titone: New paper from our lab, "Spoken Word Processing in Bilingual Older Adults: Assessing Within-and Cross-Language Competition using the Visual World Task", accepted at "Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism" Preprint/R scripts etc: https://t.co/CZGWccCxmD https://t.co/tHYpYL2aX5
PsyArXivBot: Spoken Word Processing in Bilingual Older Adults: Assessing Within-and Cross-Language Competition using the Visual World Task https://t.co/XQmBpfsrx1
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Authors: 3
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##### #7. Wait for it! Stronger influence of context on categorical perception in Danish than Norwegian
###### Byurakn Ishkhanyan, Anders Højen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Christer Johansson, Kristian Tylén, Morten H. Christiansen
Speech input is often noisy and ambiguous. Yet listeners usually do not have difficulties understanding it. A key hypothesis is that in speech processing acoustic-phonetic bottom-up processing is complemented by top-down contextual information. This context effect is larger when the ambiguous word is only separated from a disambiguating word by a few syllables compared to many syllables, suggesting that there is a limited time window for processing acoustic-phonetic information with the help of context. Here, we argue that the relative weight of bottom-up and top-down processes may be different for languages that have different phonological properties. We report an experiment comparing two closely related languages, Danish and Norwegian. We show that Danish speakers do indeed rely on context more than Norwegian speakers do. These results highlight the importance of investigating cross-linguistic differences in speech processing, suggesting that speakers of different languages may develop different language processing strategies.
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###### Tweets
byureka: And here is a preprint of the paper with some of the stuff I mentioned today in my talk at #SALC7: https://t.co/U2xTvcsU95 https://t.co/J4QSUo0qU9
fusaroli: RT @byureka: And here is a preprint of the paper with some of the stuff I mentioned today in my talk at #SALC7: https://t.co/U2xTvcsU95 htt…
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Wait for it! Stronger influence of context on categorical perception in Danish than Norwegian https://t.co/kJ3R62eZFr
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 5062
Unqiue Words: 1665

##### #8. The Role of Multisensory Temporal Covariation in Audiovisual Speech Recognition in Noise
###### Jonathan Venezia, Robert Sandlin, Leon Wojno, Anthony Duc Tran, Gregory Hickok, Virginia Richards
Static and dynamic visual speech cues contribute to audiovisual (AV) speech recognition in noise. Static cues (e.g., “lipreading”) provide complementary information that enables perceivers to ascertain ambiguous acoustic-phonetic content. The role of dynamic cues is less clear, but one suggestion is that temporal covariation between facial motion trajectories and the speech envelope enables perceivers to recover a more robust representation of the time-varying acoustic signal. Modeling studies show this is computationally feasible, though it has not been confirmed experimentally. We conducted two experiments to determine whether AV speech recognition depends on the magnitude of cross-sensory temporal coherence (AVC). In Experiment 1, sentence-keyword recognition in steady-state noise (SSN) was assessed across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for auditory and AV speech. The auditory signal was unprocessed or filtered to remove 3-7 Hz temporal modulations. Filtering severely reduced AVC (magnitude-squared coherence of...
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###### Tweets
GregoryHickok: The Role of Multisensory Temporal Covariation in Audiovisual Speech Recognition in Noise. Our new pre-print now up @PsyArXiv https://t.co/q9FLA81iCO
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: The Role of Multisensory Temporal Covariation in Audiovisual Speech Recognition in Noise https://t.co/bzyC2TKG5I
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 21315
Unqiue Words: 4483

##### #9. Quantifying the benefits of using decision models with response time and accuracy data
###### Tom Stafford, Angelo Pirrone, Mike Croucher, Anna Krystalli
Across diverse subfields experimentalists collect response time and accuracy data. Inter-subject and inter-group speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATOs) are a well-known possibility which are often inadequately addressed. Many experiments focus on a single variable (e.g. psychophysics paradigms analysing accuracy alone), or involve a suboptimal analytic correction (e.g. dividing accuracy by response time). Models of decision making, such as the drift diffusion model (DDM), provide a principled account of the decision making process, allowing the recovery of SATO-unconfounded decision parameters from observed behavioural variables. For plausible parameters of a typical between-groups experiment we simulate experimental data, for both real and null group differences, and for both systematic and null SATOs, and fit the DDM. This allows the direct comparison of the specificity and sensitivity of different measures (accuracy, reaction time and the drift rate from the model fitting) for testing for group differences. We show, in terms of...
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###### Tweets
tomstafford: New pre-print "Quantifying the benefits of using decision models with response time and accuracy data" https://t.co/nnhPcRDGUn from me, @UiBangelo, @walkingrandomly and @annakrystalli Also, check out the interactive data explorer here https://t.co/ear7kRbFiT
walkingrandomly: This exchange led to me contributing to this paper: https://t.co/HMHNb74Dhb My job: Parallelising the python code. I still do this type of work but now I do it as part of @NAGTalk https://t.co/it3UlaqBoh
ethanwhite: RT @walkingrandomly: This exchange led to me contributing to this paper: https://t.co/HMHNb74Dhb My job: Parallelising the python code.…
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Quantifying the benefits of using decision models with response time and accuracy data https://t.co/VtTWIfB7mV
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 7152
Unqiue Words: 2214

##### #10. Darda_individual_differences_cognitive_control
###### Kohinoor Monish Darda, Emily E. Butler, Richard Ramsey
Cognitive control refers to the ability of human beings to adapt flexibly and quickly to continuously changing environments. Several decades of research have identified a diverse range of mental processes that are associated with cognitive control but the extent to which shared systems underlie cognitive control in social and non-social contexts, as well as how these systems may vary across individuals, remains largely unexplored. By integrating methodological approaches from experimental and differential psychology, the current study is able to shine new light on the relationships between stable features of individuals, such as personality and sex, and the architecture of cognitive control systems. Across three large-sample experiments (&gt;600 participants in total), we demonstrate that cognitive control systems are largely invariant to stable aspects of personality, but exhibit a sex difference, such that females show greater task-interference than males. Moreover, we further qualified this sex difference in two ways. First, we...
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###### Tweets
RichRamseyPhD: A new preprint on individual differences in cognitive control. A huge effort by @kohinoordarda and Emily Butler across three experiments, over 600 participants and with open data and analyses. Very impressive - well done to both of you! Feedback welcome. https://t.co/RuqrUV9WLP
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Sample Sizes : [14, 7, 165, 15, 21, 205]
Authors: 3
Total Words: 23545
Unqiue Words: 4602

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