Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


2.285 Mikeys
#1. Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults
Eilidh Cage, Holly Burton
Prior research has shown that less favourable first impressions are formed of autistic adults by non-autistic observers. Autistic females may present differently to autistic males and could engage in more camouflaging behaviours, which could affect these first impressions. However, research has not yet tested for gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults. In the current study, non-autistic observers (n = 205) viewed either 10-second video clips or text transcripts in the context of a mock job interview by ten autistic females and ten autistic males, matched to ten non-autistic females and ten non-autistic males. They then completed the First Impressions Assessment Scale, evaluating each stimuli on personality traits (e.g. awkwardness) and behavioural intentions (e.g. “I would start a conversation with this person”). Non-autistic observers were blind to diagnostic status of the individuals in either modality. Results showed that first impressions were less favourable overall of autistic adults in the video...
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MiltonBroome: https://t.co/ZWvdubPVT2 https://t.co/xs01sTdpSs
DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
raj_psyc: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
AspieHuman: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
VerityChester: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
jadenozzz: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
DrEilidh: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
Noahsasson: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
debbieriby: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
KristenBott: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/phs45CTJW2
RHSocSci: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
KaydenStockwell: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
harrisonrigby9: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
AmandeepJutla: RT @PsyArXivBot: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/phs45CTJW2
hollyburtonPsy: RT @DrEilidh: New #preprint with @hollyburtonPsy: Gender differences in the first impressions of autistic adults https://t.co/HfcBNAHltf
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 6318
Unqiue Words: 1938

2.133 Mikeys
#2. Beyond the Aggregate Score: Using Multilevel Modeling to Examine Trajectories of Laboratory-Measured Aggression
David Chester
Aggression is often measured in the laboratory as an iterative ‘tit-for-tat’ sequence, in which two aggressors repeatedly inflict retaliatory harm upon each other. Aggression researchers typically quantify aggression by aggregating across participants’ aggressive behavior on such iterative encounters. However, this ‘aggregate approach’ cannot capture trajectories of aggression across the iterative encounters and needlessly eliminates rich information in the form of within-participant variability. As an alternative approach, I employed multilevel modeling to examine the slope of aggression across the 25-trial Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) as a function of trait physical aggression and experimental provocation. Across two preregistered studies (combined N = 392), participants exhibited a modest decline in aggression. This decline reflected a reciprocal strategy, in which participants responded to an initially-provocative opponent with greater aggression that then decreased over time in order to matched their opponent’s declining...
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daveschester: 1/5 Check out my new paper, now in press at Aggressive Behavior, in which I examine whether a multilevel modeling (MLM) framework can reveal new insights about aggressive behavior as it is modeled across the trials of an iterative laboratory paradigm. https://t.co/mQIQwX8VDl
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2.131 Mikeys
#3. Why Most Studies of Individual Differences With Inhibition Tasks Are Bound To Fail
Jeffrey Rouder, Aakriti Kumar, Julia M. Haaf
Establishing correlations among common inhibition tasks such as Stroop or flanker tasks has been proven quite difficult despite many attempts. It remains unknown whether this difficulty occurs because inhibition is a disparate set of phenomena or whether the analytical techiques to uncover a unified inhibition phenomenon fail in real-world contexts. In this paper, we explore the field-wide inability to assess whether inhibition is unified or disparate. We do so by showing that ordinary methods of correlating performance including those with latent variable models are doomed to fail because of trial noise (or, as it is sometimes called, measurement error). We then develop hierarchical models that account for variation across trials, variation across individuals, and covariation across individuals and tasks. These hierarchical models also fail to uncover correlations in typical designs for the same reasons. While we can charaterize the degree of trial noise, we cannot recover correlations in typical designs that enroll hundreds...
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Kane_WMC_Lab: Link to the @JeffRouder, Kumar, & @JuliaHaaf preprint on PsyArXiv: https://t.co/R1eKjZGCUL
CalvinKLai: "Why most studies of individual differences with inhibition tasks are bound to fail" - new preprint by @JeffRouder, Kumar, & Haaf https://t.co/lTDyKLRF3W https://t.co/Q7TvihKGpp
PsyArXivBot: Why Most Studies of Individual Differences With Inhibition Tasks Are Bound To Fail https://t.co/vC1BwFBo1w
tomstafford: RT @PsyArXivBot: Why Most Studies of Individual Differences With Inhibition Tasks Are Bound To Fail https://t.co/vC1BwFBo1w
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Github
Repository: ctx-inhibition
User: PerceptionAndCognitionLab
Language: TeX
Stargazers: 0
Subscribers: 2
Forks: 0
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 9484
Unqiue Words: 2507

2.11 Mikeys
#4. Postprint - Would I be Helped? Cross-National CCTV Footage Shows That Intervention Is the Norm in Public Conflicts
Richard Philpot, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Mark Levine, Wim Bernasco, Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard
Half a century of research on bystander behavior concludes that individuals are less likely to intervene during an emergency when in the presence of others than when alone. By contrast, little is known regarding the aggregated likelihood that at least someone present at an emergency will do something to help. The importance of establishing this aggregated intervention baseline is not only of scholarly interest, but is also the most pressing question for actual public victims—will I receive help if needed? The current paper describes the largest systematic study of real-life bystander intervention in actual public conflicts captured by surveillance cameras. Using a unique cross-national video dataset from the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and South Africa (N = 219), we show that in nine-out-of-ten public conflicts, at least one bystander, but typically several, will do something to help. We record similar likelihoods of intervention across the three national contexts, which differ greatly in levels of recorded violent crime....
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cbokhove: Very interesting paper. I am surprised researchers could get the footage -> Postprint - Would I be Helped? Cross-National CCTV Footage Shows That Intervention Is the Norm in Public Conflicts https://t.co/buJ8ciM30c via @OSFramework
christianruck: The Bystander Effect (att om det finns många vittnen till t ex ett brott så minskar chansen att en ingriper) har undersökts med hjälp av film från övervakningskameror och visar glädjande nog att i 9/10 fall ingriper minst en person, ofta flera. https://t.co/7OSoSJ8vCv
nsfaber: Real-life data on a #SocialPsychology classic, the #BystanderEffect: study using CCTV footage from 3 countries finds "that in nine-out-of-ten public conflicts, at least one bystander, but typically several, will do something to #help"! HT @StefanFSchubert https://t.co/2x7bmu3tZK
PsyArXivBot: Postprint - Would I be Helped? Cross-National CCTV Footage Shows That Intervention Is the Norm in Public Conflicts https://t.co/6mkWWF41HG
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 6510
Unqiue Words: 2375

2.012 Mikeys
#5. Probability range and probability distortion in a gambling task
Chenmu Xing, Joanna Paul, Alexandra Zax, Sara Cordes, Hilary Barth, Andrea Patalano
In decision making under risk, adults tend to overestimate small and underestimate large probabilities (Tversky & Kahneman, 1992). This inverse S-shaped distortion pattern is similar to that observed in a wide variety of proportion judgment tasks (see Hollands & Dyre, 2000, for review). In proportion judgment tasks, distortion patterns tend not to be fixed but rather to depend on the reference points to which the targets are compared. Here, we tested the novel hypothesis that probability distortion in decision making under risk might also be influenced by reference points—in this case, references implied by the probability range. Adult participants were assigned to either a full-range (probabilities from 0-100%), upper-range (50-100%), or lower-range (0-50%) condition, where they indicated certainty equivalents for 176 hypothetical monetary gambles (e.g., “a 50% chance of $100, otherwise $0”). Using a modified cumulative prospect theory model, we found only minimal differences in probability distortion as a function...
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Hilary_Barth: New pub, first author postdoctoral fellow Dr. Chenmu Xing, in collaboration with Joanna Paul, Alexandra Zax, @Sclammie, and senior author @AndreaPatalano. Accepted preprint, "Probability range and probability distortion in a gambling task." https://t.co/qTMWu0JhDL
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: Probability range and probability distortion in a gambling task https://t.co/GnDNakgqOn
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Total Words: 15028
Unqiue Words: 3149

2.009 Mikeys
#6. 자율적인 기능하기 척도 타당화 연구
Bomi SONG
Autonomous functioning means to be the author of one's behavior. This study is to develop a simple, reliable and valid measurement for assessing autonomous functioning. The functional importance of trait autonomy has promoted development and validation of Korean version of Index of Autonomous Functioning. Three sub-constructs including self-congruence, interest-taking, and low susceptibility to control that have theoritically driven by self determination theory, consist of Korean version of IAF. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, relational analysis to criterion, and regression analysis indicated that Korean version of IAF was a reliable, valid instrument. The significance of the study lies on the development of a brief, reliable trait autonomy scale based on theory. Limitations and future research suggestions presented.
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PsyArXivBot: jayuljeogin gineunghagi ceogdo tadanghwa yeongu https://t.co/f7nAWWniGV
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Sample Sizes : [302, 94, 52, 156, 302, 157, 157, 146, 94, 302, 302, 302, 155, 302, 146, 302, 146]
Authors: 1
Total Words: 3270
Unqiue Words: 1390

2.003 Mikeys
#7. Perceived Income Inequality: Why Pay Ratios Are Less Effective Than Median Incomes
Ignazio Ziano, Christophe Lembregts
Public companies are mandated to publish compensation data (CEO compensation, median employee salary, and their ratios). We examine how people perceive income inequality and salary fairness in companies when they are confronted with varying levels of CEO compensation, median employee pay, and their ratios. Four experiments (total n = 2,121, three preregistered) show that median employee salaries mainly drive judgments of income inequality and compensation fairness (of both employees and the CEO), because employee pay is easier to evaluate than CEO compensation and ratios. In support of an evaluability explanation, we find a bigger impact of CEO compensation and ratios on salary fairness and economic inequality judgments in joint evaluation – which makes them easier to evaluate – than in separate evaluation. These results have implications about the understanding of economic inequality by the public and for the way policymakers should regulate the presentation of compensation data.
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ignaziano: ***NEW PREPRINT BY ME, @Christophelem and Mario Pandelaere "Perceived Income Inequality: Why Pay Ratios Are Less Effective Than Median Incomes" https://t.co/ptzWlhYhEN https://t.co/Mw2Wkbqe9X
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 9011
Unqiue Words: 2131

2.001 Mikeys
#8. Estimating the stability of heartbeat counting in middle childhood: a twin study
Jennifer Murphy, Rosa Cheesman, Alice Gregory, Jennifer Lau, Anke Ehlers, Caroline Catmur, Geoff Bird, Thalia Eley
There is growing interest in interoception, the perception of the body’s internal state, and its relevance for health and higher-order cognition across development. To date, most evidence linking interoception to health and cognition has used the heartbeat counting task. However, the stability of the measure across time, particularly during childhood, and the etiological factors that underlie individual differences in stability remain largely unexamined. Using data from the ECHO twin sample (N=204 twin pairs), we estimated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on the stability of heartbeat counting across a two-year period (8-10 years), the longest time-frame examined. We found a relatively modest correlation between heartbeat counting accuracy across time (r=.35), with accuracy on the heartbeat counting task improving with age. In our longitudinal twin analysis, we found that the heritability of heartbeat counting dropped between Time 1 and Time 2 from 30% to 6%. No new genetic influences were observed at Time 2,...
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RosaCheesman: New preprint with @JJMurphy90: a longitudinal twin analysis of heartbeat counting in middle childhood https://t.co/nybzr9Q5Ff. Thanks to coauthors @thaliaeley @DrGeoffBird @ProfAMGregory @drccatmur Jennifer Lau, Anke Ehlers
PsyArXivBot: Estimating the stability of heartbeat counting in middle childhood: a twin study https://t.co/493cVvoXXC
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Sample Sizes : [204]
Authors: 8
Total Words: 8056
Unqiue Words: 2294

1.997 Mikeys
#9. Mother-infant interpersonal neural connectivity predicts infants’ social learning
Victoria Leong, Valdas Noreika, Kaili Clackson, Stanimira Georgieva, Laura Brightman, Rebecca Nutbrown, Sayaka Fujita, Dave Neale, Sam Wass
Social learning allows infants to learn vicariously by observing adult behaviour, but how the infant brain accomplishes this feat remains unknown. Here, electroencephalography (EEG) signals were simultaneously measured from forty-seven mothers and infants (10.7 months) during a live social learning task. First, infants observed mothers demonstrate positive or negative emotions toward novel toys. Next, infants’ own toy interaction (learning) was measured. Infants’ social learning likelihood was robustly predicted by mother-infant interpersonal neural connectivity in the Alpha (6-9 Hz) band. Stronger dyadic neural connectedness predicted increased learning, and was associated with extended ostensive eye contact and maternal utterances. Intra-infant neural connectivity predicted learning valence (positive/negative) but was unrelated to learning likelihood. Therefore, interpersonal connectivity is a neural mechanism by which infants learn from their social partners.
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PsyArXivBot: Mother-infant interpersonal neural connectivity predicts infants' social learning https://t.co/AJKPSvcBu7
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Sample Sizes : [32, 17, 15]
Authors: 9
Total Words: 13578
Unqiue Words: 3977

1.997 Mikeys
#10. Are smartphones really that bad? Improving the psychological measurement of technology-related behaviors
David Ellis
Understanding how people use technology remains important, particularly when measuring the impact this might have on individuals and society. To date, research within psychological science often frames new technology as problematic with overwhelmingly negative consequences. However, this paper argues that the latest generation of psychometric tools, which aim to assess smartphone usage, are unable to capture technology related experiences or behaviors. As a result, many conclusions concerning the psychological impact of technology use remain unsound. Current assessments have also failed to keep pace with new methodological developments and these data-intensive approaches challenge the notion that smartphones and related technologies are inherently problematic. The field should now consider how it might re-position itself conceptually and methodologically given that many ‘addictive’ technologies have long since become intertwined with daily life.
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PsyArXivBot: Are smartphones really that bad? Improving the psychological measurement of technology-related behaviors https://t.co/1hcDW89r37
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 7248
Unqiue Words: 2504

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