Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


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#1. Taking the perspectives of many people: humanization matters
Tian Ye, Fumikazu Furumi, Daniel Catarino da Silva, Antonia Hamilton
In a busy space, people encounter many other people with different viewpoints, but classic studies of VPT examine only one agent at a time. This paper explores the issue of selectivity in VPT when different people are available to interact with. We consider the hypothesis that humanisation impacts on VPT in four studies using virtual reality methods. Experiment 1 & 2 use the Director Task to show that for more humanised agents (an in-group member or a virtual human agent), participants were more likely to use VPT to achieve lower error rate. Experiment 3 & 4 used a two-agent social mental rotation task to show that participants are faster and more accurate to recognise items which are oriented towards a more humanised agent (an in-group member or a naturally-moving agent). All results support the claim that humanisation alters the propensity to engage in VPT in rich social contexts.
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#2. The whole is equal to the sum of its parts: pigeons (Columba livia) and crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) do not perceive emergent configurations
Kazuhiro Goto
We previously demonstrated that chimpanzees, like humans, showed better accuracy and faster response time in discriminating visual patterns when the patterns were presented in redundant and uninformative contexts than when they were presented alone. In the present study, we examined the effect of redundant context on pattern discrimination in pigeons (Columba livia) and large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) using the same task and stimuli as those used in our previous study on chimpanzees. Birds were trained to search for an odd target among homogenous distractors. Each stimulus was presented in one of three ways: (1) alone, (2) with identical context that resulted in emergent configuration to chimpanzees (congruent context), or (3) with identical context that did not result in emergent configuration to chimpanzees (in- congruent context). In contrast to the facilitative effect of congruent contexts we previously reported in chimpanzees, the same contexts disrupted target localization performance in both pigeons and crows....
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drkgoto: Just uploaded a preprint "The whole is equal to the sum of its parts: pigeons (Columba livia) and crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) do not perceive emergent configurations" https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
asarin: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
myuuko: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
kaihiraishi: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
yo_ehara: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
riet911: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
momentumyy: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
oneko45: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
6_hotty: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
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#3. Effect of culture on memory for binding different types of visual information
John J Shaw
The degree of individualism or collectivism in a culture has observable effects on cognitive processing. Participants from collectivist cultures are less able to identify a previously displayed object when presented with a novel background than participants from individualist cultures. This can be interpreted as collectivist cultures more likely to process information field dependently. We tested explicitly whether collectivist or individualist cultures are more likely to bind foreground and background images and whether such binding is differentially affected for object-scene and action-scene combinations. Across three experiments participants viewed item-context composites, then completed a forced-choice recognition task. In Experiment 1, 61 UK and 57 Malaysian participants viewed object-scene composites, with UK participants significantly more accurate in correct composite recognition, with Experiment 2 demonstrating this difference was not due to cultural differences in object familiarity. In Experiment 3, 62 UK and 67...
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#4. What is the How: Participatory Sense-making as Consensual Validation of Phenomenal Data
Aleš Oblak
We propose a method of consensually validating phenomenal data. We believe such a method is necessary due to underreporting of explicit validation procedures in empirical phenomenological literature. We argue that descriptive science, exemplified by phenomenology and natural history, rely on nominalization for construction of intersubjectively accessible knowledge. We compare the epistemologies of phenomenology and natural history, pointing out that they differ in their attitudes towards the interpretation of texts and visual epistemology, however, they both rely on eidetic intuition of experts for knowledge construction. In developing our method, we started out with the prismatic approach, a method of researching embodied social dynamics. We then used debriefings on the experience of consensual validation to further refine the method. Importantly, we suggest that for a nominalization of experiential world to be intersubjectively accessible, a group of co-researchers has to independently construct said vocabulary. We therefore...
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#5. Visual and auditory contextual cues differentially influence alcohol-related inhibitory control
Adam Qureshi, Rebecca Monk, Charlotte Rebecca Pennington, Jennifer Rose Oulton
Introduction: Representing a more immersive testing environment, the current study exposed individuals to both alcohol-related visual and auditory cues to assess their respective impact on alcohol-related inhibitory control. It examined further whether individual variation in alcohol consumption and trait effortful control may predict inhibitory control performance. Method: Twenty-five U.K. university students (Mage = 23.08, SD = 8.26) completed an anti-saccade eye-tracking task and were instructed to look towards (pro) or directly away (anti) from alcohol-related and neutral visual stimuli. Short alcohol-related sound cues (bar audio) were played on 50% of trials and were compared with responses where no sounds were played. Results: Findings indicate that participants launched more incorrect saccades towards alcohol-related visual stimuli on anti-saccade trials, and responded quicker to alcohol on pro-saccade trials. Alcohol-related audio cues reduced latencies for both pro- and anti-saccade trials and reduced anti-saccade error...
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BillyJansson: RT @PsyArXivBot: Visual and auditory contextual cues differentially influence alcohol-related inhibitory control https://t.co/8TvouPEo03
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0.0 Mikeys
#6. Evidence of tool use in a seabird?
Benjamin Farrar
Fayet, Hansen and Biro (1) provide two observations of Atlantic puffins, Fratercula arctica performing self-directed actions while holding a stick in their beaks. The authors interpret this as evidence of tool use as they suggest that the stick was manipulated towards the birds’ plumage with the specific goal of scratching. While these are certainly interesting observations, the authors do not address a simple and likely explanation of the self-directed actions that does not constitute tool use; that the observations occurred by chance. As such, their conclusions about tool use and cognition in seabirds are premature.
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bg_farrar: I just pre-printed my letter about the “Evidence of tool use in a seabird” paper, which provided two observations of stick holding and self-directed behaviour in puffins. In it, I argue that the conclusion of tool use is premature and likely incorrect. https://t.co/CE01o75Fp0
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#7. Nothing Going On? Exploring the Role of Missed Events in Changes in Subjective Well-Being and the Big Five Personality Traits
Maike Luhmann, Susanne Buecker, Till Kaiser, Mira Beermann
Objective: Missed events are defined as the nonoccurrence of expected major life events within a specified time frame. We examined whether missed events should be studied in research on growth by exploring the role of missed events for changes in subjective well-being (SWB) and the Big Five personality traits. Method: The samples were selected from two nationally representative panel studies, the German Socioeconomic Panel Innovation Sample (SOEP-IS, total N = 6,638) and the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel (LISS, Ns between 4,262 and 5,749). Rank-order stability and mean-level change were analyzed using regression and mixed models. Type I error probability was reduced by using conservative thresholds for level of significance and minimal effect size. Results: Expected but missed events were more frequent than actually experienced events. For SWB, rank-order stability tended to be lower among those who experienced a missed event than among those who did not. For the Big Five personality traits,...
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#8. Capturing dimensions of material deprivation, sociocognitive stimulation, and emotional threat in the context of poverty: A moderated nonlinear factor model in a population-based sample of low-income children measured across infancy through early adolescence
Meriah DeJoseph, Robin Sifre, Cybele Raver, Clancy B. Blair, Daniel Berry
Income, maternal education, and cumulative-risk indices of poverty-related adversity likely obscure meaningful heterogeneity in the mechanisms through which poverty impacts child outcomes. The present study draws from contemporary theory to specify multiple dimensions of poverty-related adversity, with the aim of better capturing these nuances. Using data from the Family Life Project (N=1,292), we leveraged moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA; Bauer, 2017) to establish group- and longitudinally-invariant measures of poverty-related adversity from infancy to early adolescence. Results indicated three latent factors—material deprivation, emotional threat, and sociocognitive stimulation—were distinct from each other and from family income. Each was largely invariant across site, race, and development and showed convergent and discriminate relations with age-twelve criterion measures. Implications for ensuring socioculturally-valid measurements of poverty are discussed.
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RaewynMutch: Capturing dimensions of material deprivation, sociocognitive stimulation,+emotional threat in the context of poverty: A moderated nonlinear factor model in a population-based sample of low-income children measured across infancy through early adolescence https://t.co/0TXFI1aVAS
meriahdejoseph: Excited to share a preprint of my first-year project! We generated a measurement model aimed to capture a more nuanced understanding of poverty-related adversity, beyond commonly-used indicators like income or maternal education. 1/6 https://t.co/OSZyOGLUsi via @OSFramework
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#9. Spry_VIHCS Study design_Preprint
Liz Spry
Background: There is increasing evidence that parental determinants of offspring early life development begin well before pregnancy. Objectives: We established the Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study (VIHCS) to examine the contributions of parental mental health, substance use and socioeconomic characteristics before pregnancy to child emotional, physical, social, and cognitive development. Population: Men and women were recruited from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort (VAHCS), an existing cohort study beginning in 1992 that assessed a representative sample of 1943 secondary school students in Victoria, Australia, repeatedly from adolescence (Wave 1, mean age 14 years) to adulthood (Wave 10, mean age 35 years). Methods: VAHCS participants with children born between 2006 and 2013 were recruited to VIHCS, and invited to participate during trimester three, at 2 months postpartum, and one year postpartum. Parental mental health, substance use and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed repeatedly throughout;...
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2000Stories: @Liz_Spry’s VIHCS protocol paper with 10 waves of parent data from age 14-35 and 3 waves of parent and child data during and after pregnancy providing an understanding of how parent health from the decades before childbirth impacts on their children https://t.co/wLaWitUEOw https://t.co/7TWm6XnYVn
2000Stories: @ Liz_Spry’s new paper profiling the important Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study using @2000Stories data to examine how parental health and health risks in the decades before pregnancy influence childhood development. Pre-print here: https://t.co/wLaWitUEOw
2000Stories: New @2000Stories paper profiling the Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study examining the contributions of parent mental health, substance use and socio-economic characteristics before pregnancy to child emotional, social and cognitive development https://t.co/wLaWitUEOw https://t.co/vRfiSqBzV1
liz_spry: PhD paper #3 published today! We describe @2000Stories, a cohort study with 9 waves of preconception parental data, 3 waves of perinatal parental and infant data, & childhood follow-up underway. Published paper (paywall): https://t.co/N8oQo6lIHC Preprint: https://t.co/rATTddx7HZ https://t.co/1QPfnrWACT
PsyArXivBot: Spry_VIHCS Study design_Preprint https://t.co/ot1KFe4GPI
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#10. Review of the Landscape Model of Reading: Composition, dynamics, application
Pablo Bernabeu
Throughout the 1990s, two theories were used to explain how people understand texts. The gap between those was bridged by the Landscape Model (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1999). A review is offered, including a schematic presentation of the Landscape Model.
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