Top 3 Psyarxiv Papers Today
Background: Cognitive flexibility – the ability to learn from and flexibly adapt to changing feedback in our environment – is critical for everyday decision-making and develops through childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Impaired cognitive flexibility is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may be related to restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB).
Methods: We examined cognitive flexibility in 572 children, adolescents and adults with ASD (N=321) and typical development (TD; N=251) using a probabilistic reversal learning task, which requires tracking of a changing optimal response in an uncertain environment. We investigated underlying mechanisms using computational modeling to quantify latent variables that index perseveration and feedback sensitivity. We then assessed how these variables related to diagnosis and developmental stage. Within ASD individuals, we further examined correlations with core and associated symptomatology.
Results: Both age group and diagnosis affected the degree of perseveration and...
Great work by @DaisyVictoriaC
and the EU-AIMS LEAP group, now on PsyArchiv, on reversal learning and perseveration in ASD. Learning 'strategies' change with age, but are remarkably consistent across ASD and typical development. Let us know what you think! https://t.co/FjawxO2UB6
The preprint is up! @lei_zhang_lz Our findings modelling cognitive flexibility in autistic and neurotypical individuals from @EUAims LEAP. Dominant learning mechanisms change between age groups but are consistent between ASD and typical development.
Total Words: 10452
Unqiue Words: 3573
Claudia D. van Borkulo,
Network theories have been put forward for psychopathology (in which mental disorders originate from causal relations between symptoms) and for personality (in which personality factors originate from coupled equilibria of cognitions, affect states, behaviors, and environments). Here, we connect these theoretical strands in an overarching Personality-Resilience-Psychopathology (PRP) model. In this model, factors in personality networks control the shape of the dynamical landscape in which symptom networks evolve; for example, the neuroticism item “I often feel blue” measures a general tendency to experience negative affect, which is hypothesized to influence the threshold parameter of the symptom “Depressed Mood” in the psychopathology network. Conversely, events at the level of the fast-evolving psychopathology network (e.g., a depressive episode), can influence the slow-evolving personality variables (e.g., by increasing feelings of worthlessness). We apply the theory to neuroticism and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Through...
Personality, resilience, and psychopathology: A model for the interaction between slow and fast network processes in the context of mental health
Lunansky, van Borkulo, & Borsboom (preprint): https://t.co/lIcbwTpSAJ https://t.co/JHmqVli404
Total Words: 11284
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James Janford Li,
There is converging and compelling evidence that mental disorders are more optimally conceptualized in a hierarchical framework that transcends traditional categorical boundaries of the DSM. Whether this hierarchical conceptualization generalizes across racial-ethnic groups, including for African American (AA) youths, is unclear. This study compared the factor structure of mental disorders in AA (n = 3,088) and European American (EA) (n = 5,147) youths aged 8-21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC). We conducted within group and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis using in 13 DSM-5 diagnoses. A bifactor, two-factor model (i.e., general, internalizing, externalizing) emerged as the optimal model for both AAs and EAs that was also factorially invariant. Each superordinate factor was also correlated with neurocognitive functions, establishing the criterion validity of the latent dimensions. Findings contribute to the notion that the covariation among the mental disorders in the DSM are more similar than different...
Total Words: 6844
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