Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


2.008 Mikeys
#1. Getting to know me better: An fMRI study of intimate and superficial self-disclosure to friends during adolescence
Nandita Vijayakumar, John Flournoy, Kate Mills, Theresa W Cheng, Arian Mobasser, Jessica Flannery, Nick Allen, Jennifer Pfeifer
Adolescence is often defined as a period of social reorientation, characterized by increased engagement with, and reliance on, same-aged peers. Consistent with these shifting motivations, we hypothesized that communicating information about oneself to friends would be intrinsically valued during adolescence. We also examined behavioral and neural differences when sharing information of varying depth in intimacy. These questions were investigated in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 125, ages 10.0-13.0 years) who completed an fMRI adaptation of a monetary choice task on self-disclosure. Behaviorally, adolescents gave up money to share self-referential information with (real-life) close friends, and neural analyses identified extensive engagement of regions that support reward, social cognition and emotion regulation when engaging in disclosure. Behavioral and neural valuation of sharing superficial information were related to individual differences in self-worth and friendship quality. Comparatively, across all levels of...
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fMRIPrep is a robust and easy-to-use pipeline for preprocessing of diverse fMRI data. The transparent workflow dispenses of manual intervention, thereby ensuring the reproducibility of the results.

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Authors: 8
Total Words: 10898
Unqiue Words: 3711

2.001 Mikeys
#2. The role of conflict, feedback, and action comprehension in monitoring of action errors: Evidence for internal and external routes
Cortney M. Howard, Louisa L. Smith, H. Branch Coslett, Laurel J. Buxbaum
The mechanisms and brain regions underlying error monitoring in complex action are poorly understood, yet errors and impaired error correction in these tasks are hallmarks of apraxia, a common disorder associated with left hemisphere stroke. Accounts of monitoring of language posit an internal route by which production planning or competition between candidate representations provide predictive signals that monitoring is required to prevent error, and an external route in which output is monitored using the comprehension system. Abnormal reliance on the external route has been associated with damage to brain regions critical for sensory-motor transformation and a pattern of gradual error ‘clean-up’ called conduite d’approche (CD). Action pantomime data from 67 participants with left hemisphere stroke were consistent with versions of internal route theories positing that competition signals monitoring requirements. Support Vector Regression Lesion Symptom Mapping (SVR-LSM) showed that lesions in the inferior parietal, posterior...
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LaurelBuxbaum: Excited about our paper on #action monitoring and #error resolution in Press in Cortex. Like #language as evidenced by #conduction #aphasia, there are #dual #routes. Congrats to Cortney Howard, first author! Check it out: https://t.co/znUJzG5K0d via @OSFramework
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Sample Sizes : [55, 12, 1865, 296, 131, 466, 138, 1103, 27]
Authors: 4
Total Words: 12612
Unqiue Words: 3787

1.998 Mikeys
#3. Dysregulation of DNA methylation during development as a potential mechanisms contributing to obsessive compulsive disorders and autism
German I. Todorov, Karthikeyan Mayilvahanan, David Ashurov, Catarina Cunha
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder, that is raising at a concerning rate. However, underlying mechanisms are still to be discovered. Obsessions and compulsions are the most debilitating aspect of these disorders (OCD), and they are the treatment priority for patients. SAPAP3 knock out mice present a reliable mouse model for repetitive compulsive behavior and are mechanistically closely related to the ASD mouse model Shank3 on a molecular level and AMPA receptor net effect. The phenotype of SAPAP3 knock out mice is obsessive grooming that leads to self-inflicted lesions by 4 months of age. Recent studies have accumulated evidence, that epigenetic mechanisms are important effectors in psychiatric conditions such as ASD and OCD. Methylation is the most studied mechanism, that recently lead to drug developments for more precise cancer treatments. We injected SAPAP3 mice with an epigenetic demethylation drug RG108 during pregnancy and delayed the onset of the phenotype in the offspring by 4 months....
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Sample Sizes : [6, 6]
Authors: 4
Total Words: 2593
Unqiue Words: 1235

1.995 Mikeys
#4. Hypothesis: Transposons (TEs) may present a mechanism of adaptation to selective pressure of trauma and its inheritance
Catarina Cunha
There are numerous studies exploring mechanisms of adaptation to selective pressure in various organisms, in which many hypothesize it being a predominant force in evolution. Although adaptation is a basic and crucial mechanism affecting biology as a whole, we still remain in the dark about it. One aspect regarding selective pressure and how it affects us over generations is stress and trauma, which afflict most of us at some point of our lives (89 % of Americans). Numerous studies suggest that extreme environmental factors, such as trauma, change how DNA is being used in organisms to produce functioning proteins, which is supposed to play an important role, among other things, in neural plasticity. This form of direct adaptation to selective pressure is not realized through random classic mutations, and therefore presents a fast tool set for an organism to integrate environmental information, which is supposed to be passed down to next generations. While epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are involved in adaptation...
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 1743
Unqiue Words: 895

0.0 Mikeys
#5. Age-related sensory deficits and their consequences
Jonathan E. Peelle
Changes in sensory systems are common as we get older, and become more likely with increasing age. In the auditory system, age-related changes are seen in domains such as auditory sensitivity, temporal processing, and spatial localization, which have significant effects on speech understanding. In vision, age related changes are seen in contrast sensitivity, scotopic processing, and visual processing speed, which have consequences for activities such as reading and driving. In addition to hearing and vision, aging is associated with changes in smell, taste, and balance. Beyond simple perceptual processing, age-related sensory changes can increase cognitive demands, requiring greater involvement of domain-general cognitive processes during perception that reduce resources available for other operations. Capturing individual variability in sensory changes and their consequences is an important part of understanding normal and pathological aging.
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Total Words: 7471
Unqiue Words: 2683

0.0 Mikeys
#6. The neural basis for auditory and audiovisual speech perception
Jonathan E. Peelle
Understanding the neural systems supporting speech perception can shed light on the representations, processes, and variability in human communication. In the case of speech and language disorders, uncovering the neurological underpinnings can sometimes lead to surgical or medical treatments. Even in the case of healthy listeners, better understanding the interactions among hierarchical brain systems during speech processing can deepen our understanding of perceptual and language processes, and how these might be affected during development, hearing loss, or in background noise. Current neurobiological frameworks largely agree on the importance of bilateral temporal cortex for processing auditory speech, with the addition of left frontal cortex for more complex linguistic structures (such as sentences). Although visual cortex is clearly important for audiovisual speech processing, there is continued debate about where and how auditory and visual signals are integrated. Studies offer evidence supporting multisensory roles for...
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jpeelle: “The neural basis for auditory and audiovisual speech perception” Preprint of chapter to appear in The Routledge Handbook of Phonetics (Katz and Assmann, eds). Routledge. https://t.co/T2fJbBHV0o https://t.co/l1haVHlsAE
AV_SP: The neural basis for auditory and audiovisual speech perception ... "[H]ow does information that necessarily enters the brain through different sensory receptors become integrated to form a single percept" @jpeelle describes and explains https://t.co/GTxXR4yz7D
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Total Words: 12441
Unqiue Words: 3503

0.0 Mikeys
#7. Social decision‐making in the brain: Input‐state‐output modelling reveals patterns of effective connectivity underlying reciprocal choices.
Daniel Shaw, Kristina Czekoova, Martin Gajdoš, Rostislav Staněk, Jiří Špalek, Milan Brázdil
During social interactions, decision‐making involves mutual reciprocity—each individual's choices are simultaneously a consequence of, and antecedent to those of their interaction partner. Neuroeconomic research has begun to unveil the brain networks underpinning social decision‐making, but we know little about the patterns of neural connectivity within them that give rise to reciprocal choices. To investigate this, the present study measured the behaviour and brain function of pairs of individuals (N = 66) whilst they played multiple rounds of economic exchange comprising an iterated ultimatum game. During these exchanges, both players could attempt to maximise their overall monetary gain by reciprocating their opponent's prior behaviour—they could promote generosity by rewarding it, and/or discourage unfair play through retaliation. By adapting a model of reciprocity from experimental economics, we show that players' choices on each exchange are captured accurately by estimating their expected utility (EU) as a reciprocal...
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PsyArXivBot: Social decision-making in the brain: Input-state-output modelling reveals patterns of effective connectivity underlying reciprocal choices. https://t.co/TW5qGwIgY9
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 11126
Unqiue Words: 3493

0.0 Mikeys
#8. [Матричные цифровые лаборатории на чипе для микрофлуоресцентного анализа и вживляемые камеры для прижизненной микроскопии на базе лабораторий на чипе с флуоресцентной визуализацией]
Oleg Gradov
Матричные цифровые лаборатории на чипе для микрофлуоресцентного анализа и вживляемые камеры для прижизненной микроскопии на базе лабораторий на чипе с флуоресцентной визуализацией (тезисы для участия в школе «Современные методы флуоресцентной визуализации в биомедицинских и биотехнологических исследованиях - 2012»; Институт биологии развития им. Н.К. Кольцова РАН) Градов О.В., Нотченко А.В. ФГБУ Научный центр неврологии РАМН, Лаборатория нейронной структуры мозга Нами в работе [1] показана возможность построения профилей люминанса тканевых и клеточных структур с использованием цитологических лабораторий на чипе элементарной конструкции. Этот способ позволяет картировать распределение селективно связываемых красителей, производить иммунофлюоресцентный анализ, флуоресцентное маркирование и т.д. in vitro. Особенную ценность приобретает данный метод в топологическом анализе фаз клеточного цикла и количественном исследовании пролиферативной активности [2]. В то же время, данная технология не позволяет производить исследования in...
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PsyArXivBot: [Matrichnye tsifrovye laboratorii na chipe dlia mikrofluorestsentnogo analiza i vzhivliaemye kamery dlia prizhiznennoi mikroskopii na baze laboratorii na chipe s fluorestsentnoi vizualizatsiei] https://t.co/cHwvhWJrAM
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 123
Unqiue Words: 70

0.0 Mikeys
#9. Declarative memory, but not executive function, is associated with temporal discounting in older adults
Karolina Lempert, David A. Wolk, Joe Kable
People often make decisions involving trade-offs between smaller immediate and larger delayed rewards. In intertemporal choices such as these, individuals tend to discount the value of future rewards, a tendency known as temporal discounting. Most people exhibit some degree of temporal discounting, but the rate at which people discount future rewards varies widely. Two neurocognitive systems have been proposed as potential candidates for mediating individual differences in discounting: executive function and declarative memory. Both of these functions decline as people age, at rates that vary across individuals. Here we leverage this variability in cognitive abilities among older adults (both cognitively normal and with mild cognitive impairment, MCI) to investigate associations between temporal discounting and executive function versus declarative memory. We find that neuropsychological measures of declarative memory (episodic memory retrieval and semantic fluency), but not executive function (Trail Making Test and lexical...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 8109
Unqiue Words: 2807

0.0 Mikeys
#10. MatherArousalAgingChapter2019
Mara Mather
Without brain systems that modulate arousal, we would not be able to have daily sleep-wake cycles, focus attention when needed, experience emotional responses, or even maintain consciousness. Thus, it is not surprising that there are multiple overlapping neurotransmitter systems that control arousal. In aging, most of these systems show decline in basic features such as number of receptors, transporters, and sometimes even in neuron count. These declines have the potential to lead to significant problems in maintaining basic arousal functions. However, some of these systems also show compensatory increases that allow for maintained levels of circulating neurotransmitters in the system—but at the cost of reduced dynamic range in arousal responses.
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MaraMather: In this new review, I argue that older brains adapt to decline in arousal-related neurotransmitter systems by operating at a higher set point. https://t.co/pffUvvn4QQ via @OSFramework #locuscoeruleus #norepinephrine #agingbrain
PsyArXivBot: MatherArousalAgingChapter2019 https://t.co/XZ8bP2g4AG
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Total Words: 8006
Unqiue Words: 2735

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