Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


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#1. Toxoplasma gondii as a prevalent model for a positive history of mental illness
Mladen Cimesa
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite, specifically single-celled intracellular protozoa. His presence is recorded in most warm-blooded organisms, and therefore also in humans. T gondii has developed a special brain tropism, so this parasite is closely linked to mental illness. The correlation between T gondii and schizophrenia is at the forefront of research and is supported by many evidence, but further research points to other psychopathologies such as bipolar disorder and depression. The prevalence of T gondi is found in the form of antisocial behavior in which we include aggression as well as the percentage of suicides that are also detected. Toxoplasmosis is a parasite that plays a role in etiopathogenesis because it sabotages the proper functioning of the neurotransmitter, especially dopamine, which is one of the determinants of mental illness because its irregular and disruptive secretion induces abnormal behavior. This paper deals with the demonstration of the connection between T gondii and mental illnesses in order to better...
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Total Words: 3638
Unqiue Words: 1775

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#2. The Heritability of Self-Control: a Meta-Analysis
Yayouk Willems, Nicky Boesen, Jian-Bin Li, Meike Bartels, Catrin Finkenauer
Self-control is the ability to control one’s impulses when faced with challenges or temptations, and is robustly associated with physiological and psychological well-being. Twin studies show that self-control is heritable, but estimates range between 0% and 90%, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative overview of the heritability of self-control. A systematic search resulted in 31 included studies, based on a sample size of >100.000 individuals, published between 1996 and 2018. Our results revealed an overall monozygotic twin correlation of .58, and an overall dizygotic twin correlation of .28, resulting in a heritability estimate of 60%. The heritability of self-control did not vary across gender or age. The heritability did differ across informants, with stronger heritability estimates based on parent report versus self-report or observations. This finding provides evidence that when aiming to understand individual differences in...
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SteveStuWill: Meta-Analysis: Self-control is around 60% heritable. In other words, genes explain around 60% of the differences between individuals in their levels of self-control. (N > 100,000) https://t.co/jc5jmXvgnY https://t.co/PY5LvHlE19
DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
pitiklinov: Un metaanálisis de la heredabilidad del autocontrol encuentra una heredabilidad del 60%. PsyArXiv Preprints https://t.co/H77IQWT8LZ
hctrdz: @Pablo_Hdez @HernanGomezB @macariomx @gibranrr Esa es una mejor refutación, pero sigue siendo una editorial ideológica que más que contravenir los puntos de Blueprint advierte sobre sus posibles implicaciones sociales. Como contraejemplo, vea este metaestudio sobre autocontrol y genética: https://t.co/aV1duXUseR
Balderouge1: El auto-control es -aproximadamente- 60% hereditario. https://t.co/8R8TpTql6E https://t.co/eyBeOIGzE4
adnosticsociety: https://t.co/Q6RZ2go1Ru
amyalkon: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
JustinLehmiller: RT @SteveStuWill: Meta-Analysis: Self-control is around 60% heritable. In other words, genes explain around 60% of the differences between individuals in their levels of self-control. (N > 100,000) https://t.co/SxSH1GPxaC https://t.co/5oIJpbSrMA
docbhooshan: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
FDantasEstado: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
NBeauHypno: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
karlbykarlsmith: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Seb_Aguanno: RT SteveStuWill: Meta-Analysis: Self-control is around 60% heritable. In other words, genes explain around 60% of the differences between individuals in their levels of self-control. (N > 100,000) https://t.co/UuUbmYlkox https://t.co/KBqTKErjHp
curtdoolittle: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Lima_Writes: RT SteveStuWill: Meta-Analysis: Self-control is around 60% heritable. In other words, genes explain around 60% of the differences between individuals in their levels of self-control. (N > 100,000) https://t.co/SeUkSotoxK https://t.co/cnnDGG3nHI
smadygo: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
EvidenceRobot: RT @PsyArXivBot: The Heritability of Self-Control: a Meta-Analysis https://t.co/rkadQ1oBQU
clakklaa: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Lyllyando: RT @Balderouge1: El auto-control es -aproximadamente- 60% hereditario. https://t.co/8R8TpTql6E https://t.co/eyBeOIGzE4
alitakuntoro: RT @PsyArXivBot: The Heritability of Self-Control: a Meta-Analysis https://t.co/rkadQ1oBQU
JimRose69872629: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
McLoughlinShane: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
JayAtki62434650: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
lu_rodrigo: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
robsica: RT @PsyArXivBot: The Heritability of Self-Control: a Meta-Analysis https://t.co/rkadQ1oBQU
rei_akaishi: RT @PsyArXivBot: The Heritability of Self-Control: a Meta-Analysis https://t.co/rkadQ1oBQU
nels_christian: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
BornEmpirical: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
3502zippo: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
feuerbringer: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
PauldeMello_Jnr: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
restrictedquant: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
JDumey: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
CoolStoryBo: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
carlosjvp111: RT @Balderouge1: El auto-control es -aproximadamente- 60% hereditario. https://t.co/8R8TpTql6E https://t.co/eyBeOIGzE4
Be_seixas01: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Lazulikhan: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
_mgh78: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
barf_captain: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
jemergence: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
amanihrr: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
PhilTheofanos: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
akarbo: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
realStevenWalk: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Pablo_Deco: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
NotNowThales: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
nice_hypothesis: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Blocked_Canary: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Zealftw: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
wowsoclever1234: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
LL924: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
paquibena: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
glitchedbroad: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
msisimko: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
juninhosereno1: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
o_pratico: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
joaoaroantunes: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
thegjl: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
Alfred_The_Okay: RT @DegenRolf: Individual differences in self-control are largely determined by genes. https://t.co/zE9INEcIUQ https://t.co/9wBgDZpgcs
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 6483
Unqiue Words: 2296

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#3. Institutional Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Development in Infancy
Jenalee Doom
Institutional care during infancy often deprives children of the social interaction, environmental experiences, and the nutrients needed to promote healthy development. Prolonged institutionalization is associated with deficits across cognitive, socioemotional, and physical domains. However, the poor levels of functioning observed while children are in institutional care are not permanent. Research has demonstrated that removal from depriving environments, especially early in life, is associated with a remarkable rebound in many domains. As such, it is impossible to discuss the impact of institutional care in infancy without also focusing on neural plasticity and the capacity of young children to rebound if their conditions improve. On the other hand, there is evidence for sensitive periods for development in some domains, such that despite improvements following removal from deprived conditions, impairments and delays continue to be observed for years post-institutionalization. Thus, children who were placed in more enriched...
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Total Words: 783
Unqiue Words: 26

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#4. Preprint: Altered decision-making under uncertainty in unmedicated mood and anxiety disorders
Oliver J Robinson
In daily life we are constantly faced with decisions that have uncertain outcomes. This uncertainty can lead to feelings of anxiety. However, the reciprocal role that anxiety plays in altering the decisions made under uncertainty is not fully understood. This is important, because psychological treatments for anxiety disorders attempt to alter anxiety-related decision-making. In this study we therefore probed the computational basis of decision-making under uncertainty in individuals with high levels of mood and anxiety symptoms. Specifically, healthy individuals (N=88) and individuals with mood and anxiety disorders (N=44) were asked to choose between four competing slot machines (‘four armed bandit’) with fluctuating, uncertain, outcomes (i.e. rewards and/or punishments, or neither). Decisions were made during periods of safety and environmental stress (threat of unpredictable shock). We predicted that anxious individuals under stress would learn faster about punishments, and exhibit choices that were more affected by them. We...
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Total Words: 5320
Unqiue Words: 1912

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#5. Action processing in the motor system: TMS evidence of shared mechanisms in the visual and linguistic modalities.
Claudia Gianelli, Katharina Kühne, Silvia Mencaraglia, Riccardo Dalla Volta
Background: The involvement of the motor system in perceiving visually and linguistically presented actions has been extensively investigated. However, only a few studies have directly investigated whether action representation is affected by the modality used to convey a motor content (i.e. pictures vs. language). Moreover, it is unclear to what extent processing actions in a non-native language affects action representation. Objective: We aimed at comparing the dynamics of corticospinal excitability when processing tool-oriented hand actions presented either visually or linguistically. We also evaluated the impact of processing actions in native and non-native speakers. Methods: Stimuli consisted of pairs of sequentially presented pictures (tool + tool-oriented hand action) and words (tool noun + tool-action verb). Linguistic stimuli were presented in German (Experiment 1) and English (Experiment 2). In each trial single-pulse TMS was applied to the left motor cortex at five different timings: baseline, 200ms after tool/noun...
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Total Words: 6236
Unqiue Words: 2313

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#6. Open Science as Better Gatekeepers for Science and Society: A Perspective from Neurolaw
Chuan-Peng Hu, Xiaoming Jiang, Ricky Jeffrey, Xi-Nian Zuo
Results from cognitive neuroscience have been cited as evidence in courtrooms around the world, and their admissibility has been a challenge for the legal system. Unfortunately, the recent reproducibility crisis in cognitive neuroscience, showing that the published studies in cognitive neuroscience may not be as trustworthy as expected, has made the situation worse. Here we analysed how the irreproducible results in cognitive neuroscience literature could compromise the standards for admissibility of scientific evidence, and pointed out how the open science movement may help to alleviate these problems. We conclude that open science not only benefits the scientific community but also the legal system, and society in a broad sense. Therefore, we suggest both scientists and practitioners follow open science recommendations and uphold the best available standards in order to serve as good gatekeepers in their own fields. Moreover, scientists and practitioners should collaborate closely to maintain an effective functioning of the...
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hcp4715: Re-submitted open science & law paper (preprint also updated: https://t.co/yXar76funG) on a Dutch train✔️, this is impossible if I were on a train of Deutsch Bahn! Next, submit my review opinion for a replication study😆
hcp4715: @improvingpsych @openpsychlaw wow. very attractive to me. Not sure I can go, but, as a former law student and a cognitive neuroscience researcher now, I am still connected to this field to some extent: we have a preprint about #openscience and neurolaw: https://t.co/yXar75XTw8
PsyArXivBot: Open Science as Better Gatekeepers for Science and Society: A Perspective from Neurolaw https://t.co/y7j46KJ08y
ReproFeed: Open Science as Better Gatekeepers for Science and Society: A Perspective from Neurolaw https://t.co/vz4rJI96w5
giladfeldman: RT @hcp4715: 1st thread about my work: my first English paper about #OpenScience is on @PsyArXiv now: https://t.co/yXar75XTw8. With @jiang_…
coding2share: RT @ReproFeed: Open Science as Better Gatekeepers for Science and Society: A Perspective from Neurolaw https://t.co/vz4rJI96w5
Grothendieck86: RT @hcp4715: 1st thread about my work: my first English paper about #OpenScience is on @PsyArXiv now: https://t.co/yXar75XTw8. With @jiang_…
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Total Words: 4474
Unqiue Words: 1742

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#7. Across continents and demographics, unpredictable maternal signals impact children’s neurodevelopment
Elysia Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian G. Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Hasse Karlsson
Early life experiences influence brain function and structure throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a major source of early life experiences, and their quantity and qualities during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on infant, child and adult emotional and social behaviors in humans, primates and rodents. Existing studies probing the salient qualities of maternal signals to the infant have centered primarily on measures of their valence. Here we report that in addition to these established qualitative dimensions, patterns of maternal signals contribute greatly to infants and children’s self-control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes. In two large, independent and disparate prospective cohorts in Turku, Finland, and Irvine, CA, USA, unpredictable sequences of maternal care portended worse child self-control. Specifically, less predictable maternal signals to the infant during the first postnatal months were associated with poor self-control at the end of the first year of life. The correlation...
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Authors: 10
Total Words: 4384
Unqiue Words: 1657

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#8. ‘Intentional binding’ without intentional action
Keisuke Suzuki, Peter Lush, Anil Seth, Warrick Roseboom
The experience of authorship over one’s actions and their consequences - sense of agency - is a fundamental aspect of conscious experience. In recent years, it has become common to use intentional binding as an implicit measure of the sense of agency. However, it remains contentious whether binding effects indicate the role of intention-related information in perception or merely represent a strong case of multisensory causal binding. Here, we use a novel virtual reality setup to demonstrate identical magnitude binding effects both in the presence and complete absence of intentional action, when perceptual stimuli are matched for temporal and spatial information. Our results demonstrate that intentional binding-like effects are most simply accounted for by multisensory causal binding, without necessarily being related to intention or agency. Future studies which relate binding effects to agency must provide evidence for effects beyond that expected for multisensory causal binding by itself.
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rei_akaishi: RT @PsyArXivBot: 'Intentional binding' without intentional action https://t.co/1EvPU0dSYk
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Total Words: 6846
Unqiue Words: 1873

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#9. Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene impacts emotion processing in the human infant brain
Kathleen Marie Krol, Meghan Puglia, James P. Morris, Jessica J. Connelly, Tobias Grossmann
The neural capacity to discriminate between emotions emerges early in development, though little is known about specific factors that contribute to variability in this vital skill during infancy. In adults, DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTRm) is an epigenetic modification that is variable, predictive of gene expression, and has been linked to autism spectrum disorder and the neural response to social cues. It is unknown whether OXTRm is variable in infants, and whether it is predictive of early social function. Implementing a developmental-neuroimaging-epigenetics approach in a large sample of infants (N=98), we examined whether OXTRm impacts neural responses to emotional expressions. OXTRm was assessed at 5 months of age. At 7 months of age, we presented infants with happy, angry, and fearful faces while recording functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We observed that OXTRm shows considerable variability among infants. Critically, infants with higher OXTRm, and presumably reduced amount of oxytocin receptor,...
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Total Words: 6534
Unqiue Words: 2425

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#10. Seeing objects helps us better hear the sounds they make
Kingson Man, Gabriela Melo, Antonio Damasio, Jonas Kaplan
It has been established that lip-reading improves the perception of auditory speech stimuli. But does the visual enhancement of auditory sensitivity extend to “objects” other than speech? In other words, does seeing an object help one hear it better? Here we report a series of psychophysical experiments in humans showing that the visual enhancement of auditory sensitivity generalizes to material objects. We further show that the crossmodal enhancement was modulated by the conscious visualization of the stimulus: we can better hear the sounds an object makes when we are conscious of seeing that object. Our work extends an intriguing crossmodal effect, previously circumscribed to speech, to a wider domain of real-world objects. We also connect the phenomenon of consciousness with functional consequences on the ability of one sensory modality to enhance the sensitivity of another.
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Unqiue Words: 2499

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Assert is a website where the best academic papers on arXiv (computer science, math, physics), bioRxiv (biology), BITSS (reproducibility), EarthArXiv (earth science), engrXiv (engineering), LawArXiv (law), PsyArXiv (psychology), SocArXiv (social science), and SportRxiv (sport research) bubble to the top each day.

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