Top 4 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


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#1. Extended Emulation Theory
Luca Rade
Emulators are internal models, first evolved for prediction in perception to shorten the feedback on motor action. However, the selective pressure on perception is to improve the fitness of decision-making, driving the evolution of emulators towards context-dependent payoff representation and integration of action planning, not enhanced prediction as is generally assumed. The result is integrated perceptual, memory, representational, and imaginative capacities processing external input and stored internal input for decision-making, while simultaneously updating stored information. Perception, recall, imagination, theory of mind, and dreaming are the same process with different inputs. Learning proceeds via scaffolding on existing conceptual infrastructure, a weak form of embodied cognition. Discrete concepts are emergent from continuous dynamics and are in a perceptual, not representational, format. Language is also in perceptual format and enables precise abstract thought. In sum, what was initially a primitive system for...
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#2. A Cognitive Fingerprint in Human Random Number Generation
Marc-Andre Schulz, Sebastian Baier, Benjamin Böhme, Danilo Bzdok, Karsten Witt
Most work in the neurosciences collapses data from multiple subjects to obtain robust statistical results. This research agenda ignores that even in healthy subjects brain structure and function are known to be highly variable. Recently, Finn and colleagues showed that the brain's functional organisation is unique to each individual and can yield human-specific connectome fingerprints. This raises the question whether unique functional brain architecture may reflect a unique implementation of cognitive processes and problem solving - i.e. "Can we identify single individuals based on how they think?". The present study addresses the general question of interindividual differences in the specific context of human random number generation. We analyzed the deployment of recurrent patterns in the pseudorandom sequences to develop an identification scheme based on subject-specific volatility patterns. We demonstrate that individuals can be reliably identified based on how they how they generate randomness patterns alone. We moreover...
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#3. The timing mega-study: comparing a range of experiment generators, both lab-based and online
David Bridges, Alain Pitiot, Michael R. MacAskill, Jonathan Peirce
Many researchers in the behavioral sciences depend on research software that presents stimuli, and records response times, with sub-millisecond precision. There are a large number of software packages with which to conduct these behavioural experiments and measure response times and performance of participants. Very little information is available, however, on what timing performance they achieve in practice. Here we report a wide-ranging study looking at the precision and accuracy of visual and auditory stimulus timing and response times, measured with a Black Box Toolkit. We compared a range of popular packages: PsychoPy, E-Prime®, NBS Presentation®, Psychophysics Toolbox, OpenSesame, Expyriment, Gorilla, jsPsych, Lab.js and Testable. Where possible, the packages were tested on Windows, MacOS, and Ubuntu, and in a range of browsers for the online studies, to try to identify common patterns in performance. Among the lab-based experiments, Psychtoolbox, PsychoPy, Presentation and E-Prime provided the best timing, all with mean...
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m_wall: "The timing mega-study: comparing a range of experiment generators, both lab-based and online" Important new pre-print for experimental software nerds: https://t.co/XgPlLLEAFv
psychopy: Finally out. Out timing mega-study: comparing a range of experiment generators, both lab-based and online You can now see the preprint https://t.co/eEFqOiPxuX and view the data https://t.co/pZoYJgCmU5 Audio, visual and response timing, on many packages, OSs and browsers 1/4
richardhuskey: How accurate are response time latencies for major experimental software packages? Maybe you already know for the one or two packages you use in your lab. But now we all know for most of the packages! H/T to @jake_fisherfor sharing this w/me https://t.co/2scEp12djl
ralfer: A very important milestone for the studies of timing in psych/neuro experiments. Should we now maybe close the discussion of online experiments (and also Psychtoolbox vs PsychoPy)? https://t.co/SrJkgk3FAt
aczeszum: PsychoPy == Psychtoolbox Online < Lab-based experiments The timing mega-study: comparing a range of experiment generators, both lab-based and online https://t.co/ogWFZ5Ygdi via @OSFramework
goldbern: If you need millisecond or sub-millisecond timing in your research. 'The timing mega-study: comparing a range of experiment generators, both lab-based and online' https://t.co/cfnahni6gr via @OSFramework
EicheleTom: https://t.co/XRrOyQTl8T
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#4. The moderating role of socioeconomic status on level of responsibility, executive functioning, and cortical thinning during adolescence
Giorgia Picci, Emma J. Rose, John VanMeter, Diana Fishbein
Brain development is exquisitely sensitive to psychosocial experiences, with implications for neurodevelopmental trajectories toward or away from positive outcomes. The premise of the current investigation was that the level of responsibility in adolescence and expectations within the home may influence brain structure and higher-order cognitive functions. We focused on cortical thickness as an indicator of neurodevelopment and examined behavioral performance on an executive function (EF) task outside of the scanner in the context of level of responsibility. We further investigated whether socioeconomic status (SES) and family stress moderated the relationship between responsibility and brain structure or EF, given expectations that the social context in which adolescents have responsibilities would influence whether the impacts on neurodevelopment were beneficial or detrimental. Findings revealed that greater levels of responsibility were related to thinner left precuneus and right middle frontal cortex. Results indicated that in...
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GiorgiaPicci1: Excited to share a new preprint from our research group! SES moderates associations between adolescents’ household responsibility, EF, and cortical thinning. https://t.co/n1QDooI95z via @OSFramework
PsyArXivBot: The moderating role of socioeconomic status on level of responsibility, executive functioning, and cortical thinning during adolescence https://t.co/FHsP2e4H8T
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