Top 9 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


2.01 Mikeys
#1. The nature of perception and emotion in aesthetic appreciation: A response to Makin’s challenge to Empirical Aesthetics
Martin Skov, Marcos Nadal
Alexis Makin argued in a recent paper that Empirical Aesthetics is unable to properly advance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in aesthetic experience. The reason for this predicament, he claims, is an inability of current research methods to capture the psychological properties that truly characterize aesthetic experience, especially the unique perceptual and emotional processes involved in the aesthetic experience. We show that Makin’s argument rests on assumptions that are at odds with scientific knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the appreciation of sensory objects. We thereafter show that such mechanisms are rooted in shared neurobiological systems, and operate according to computational principles that are common to many domains of experience. This casts doubt on the notion that aesthetic experiences constitute a distinct kind of experiences that can be defined according to a set of special and unique qualities. Finally, we discuss how attributing this specialness to “aesthetic” experiences...
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mskov01: A slap in the face of Empirical Aesthetics! Preprint of new paper in which Marcos Nadal and I argue that current thinking about what an aesthetic experience is rely on assumptions not supported by empirical evidence. #aesthetics #neuroaesthetics https://t.co/OunmoqEGUz
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 0
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2.001 Mikeys
#2. Kappes et al 2019 Social Uncertainty is Heterogeneous and Sometimes Valuable
Andreas Kappes, Anne-Marie Nussberger, Jenifer Siegel, Robb Rutledge, Molly Crockett
To win friends, help the needy, avoid exploitation, or influence strangers, people must make decisions that are inherently uncertain. In their compelling and insightful perspective on resolving social uncertainty, FeldmanHall and Shenhav (2019) join a growing movement combining computational approaches with social psychological theory. In this Communication, we highlight theory and evidence suggesting important avenues for enriching their model.
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rei_akaishi: Social Uncertainty is Heterogeneous and Sometimes Valuable (therefore sought after..) https://t.co/SYtZuKNO4k
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 796
Unqiue Words: 469

1.998 Mikeys
#3. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces clinical symptoms, but do not change frontal alpha asymmetry in people with major depression disorder
Izabela Szumska, Mateusz Gola, Marzena Rusanowska, Martyna Łempicka, Jarosław Żygierewicz, Izabela Krejtz, John B. Nezlek, Paweł Holas
Objectives. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has demonstrated to be successful in the reduction of relapse rates in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Little is known if MBCT is effective for treating individuals with current MDD episode and about underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of symptoms reduction. The aim of the present study was to assess effects of MBCT on depressed individuals in terms of reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to evaluate if this therapeutic improvement would be reflected on neurophysiological level by shift in frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Participants. We studied 20 individuals with current MDD. Design. Participants were randomly assigned either to waiting list or 8-week MBCT. Before and after the treatment we have assessed depression, anxiety, and FAA in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) – an indicator of approach vs. withdrawal-related response dispositions and a vulnerability factor of MDD. Results. In line with previous findings, reduction...
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 5203
Unqiue Words: 1925

1.997 Mikeys
#4. Global visual salience of competing stimuli
Alex Hernández-García, Ricardo Ramos Gameiro, Alessandro Grillini, Peter König
Current computational models of visual salience accurately predict the distribution of fixations on isolated visual stimuli. These predictions relate to the relative distribution of fixations within a single image, that is they form a local salience map. It is not known, however, whether the global salience of a visual stimulus, that is its effectiveness in the competition for attention with other stimuli, is a function of the local salience or an independent measure. Further, do task and familiarity with the images influence eye movements in situations of competing stimuli? Here we investigated the global salience of images and its properties. Participants freely observed pairs of images while eye movements were recorded. In half of the experiment we presented pairs of new images and pairs of already seen images. In the other half, new and familiar images were mixed and participants indicated either new or previously shown images respectively. Then, we trained a logistic regression model to predict the location---left or right...
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 9505
Unqiue Words: 2539

1.997 Mikeys
#5. A Brief Anatomical Sketch of Human Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
Jamil Bhanji, David Victor Smith, Mauricio Delgado
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a major focus of investigation in human neuroscience, particularly in studies of emotion, social cognition, and decision making. Although the term vmPFC is widely used, the zone is not precisely defined, and for varied reasons has proven a complicated region to study. A difficulty identifying precise boundaries for the vmPFC comes partly from varied use of the term, sometimes including and sometimes excluding ventral parts of anterior cingulate cortex and medial parts of orbitofrontal cortex. These discrepancies can arise both from the need to refer to distinct sub-regions within a larger area of prefrontal cortex, and from the spatially imprecise nature of research methods such as human neuroimaging and natural lesions. The inexactness of the term is not necessarily an impediment, although the heterogeneity of the region can impact functional interpretation. Here we briefly address research that has helped delineate sub-regions of the human vmPFC, we then discuss patterns of white...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 1816
Unqiue Words: 828

1.997 Mikeys
#6. Separable neural representations of sound sources: Speaker identity and musical timbre
Mattson Ogg, Dustin Moraczewski, Stefanie Kuchinsky, L. Robert Slevc
Human listeners can quickly and easily recognize different sound sources (objects and events) in their environment. Understanding how this impressive ability is accomplished can improve signal processing and machine intelligence applications along with assistive listening technologies. However, it is not clear how the brain represents the many sounds that humans can recognize (such as speech and music) at the level of individual sources, categories and acoustic features. To examine the cortical organization of these representations, we used patterns of fMRI responses to decode 1) four individual speakers and instruments from one another (separately, within each category), 2) the superordinate category labels associated with each stimulus (speech or instrument), and 3) a set of simple synthesized sounds that could be differentiated entirely on their acoustic features. Data were collected using an interleaved silent steady state sequence to increase the temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and mitigate issues with auditory stimulus...
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 11224
Unqiue Words: 2985

1.997 Mikeys
#7. On empirical well-definedness of models of consciousness
Johannes Kleiner
Recently, it has been claimed that "IIT and other causal structure theories cannot explain consciousness" due to a dissociation of empirical data from the theories' predictions ("unfolding argument"). We investigate this claim systematically and find that a) the criterion put forward by the authors applies to almost all models of consciousness and might therefore be considered as too strong, and that b) the problem is due to particularities of the assumptions underlying parts of the scientific study of consciousness.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 2988
Unqiue Words: 937

1.995 Mikeys
#8. Prospective task knowledge improves working memory-guided behaviour
Frida Printzlau, Nicholas E. Myers, Paul S. Muhle-Karbe, Sanjay G Manohar, Mark G. Stokes
Working memory (WM) is the ability to keep information online for a forthcoming task. WM theories have tended to focus on how sensory information is maintained, and less on how WM content is used for guiding behaviour. Here we ask if WM is supported by a transformation of sensory memoranda into task-sets that are optimised for task-dependent responses. Thirty participants performed two different WM tasks; they remembered the tilt of oriented bars for either a rotation-discrimination task or a change-detection task. Task context was instructed either in advance (fixed task blocks) or at probe onset (mixed task blocks). If WM content is configured in a task-dependent format, performance should benefit from foreknowledge of the upcoming task. In line with this prediction, we found that WM accuracy was higher when participants had advance knowledge of the task context. Even if WM content can be configured as a task-set, perhaps only one item is optimised for guiding behaviour. If so, retro-cued prioritization may be supported by a...
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 5381
Unqiue Words: 1743

1.962 Mikeys
#9. A standardized protocol for efficient andreliable quality control of brain registration infunctional MRI studies
Yassine Benhajali, AmanPreet Badhwar, Helen Spiers, Sebastian Urchs, Jonathan Armoza, Thomas Ong, Daniel Pérusse, Pierre Bellec
Automatic alignment of brain anatomy in a standard space is a key step when processing magnetic resonance imaging for group analyses. Such brain registration is prone to failure, and the results are therefore typically reviewed visually to ensure quality. There is however no standard, validated protocol available to perform this visual quality control. We propose here a standardized QC protocol for brain registration, with minimal training overhead and no required knowledge of brain anatomy. We validated the reliability of three-level QC ratings (OK, Maybe, Fail) across different raters. Nine experts each rated N=100 validation images, and reached moderate to good agreement (Kappa from 0.4 to 0.68, average of 0.54±0.08), with the highest agreement for “Fail” images (Dice from 0.67 to 0.93, average of 0.8±0.06). We then recruited volunteers through the Zooniverse crowdsourcing platform, and extracted a consensus panel rating for both the Zooniverse raters (N=41) and the expert raters. The agreement between expert and Zooniverse...
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 0
Unqiue Words: 0

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