Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Life Sciences


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#1. The Impact of Leisure Activities on Older Adults’ Cognitive Function, Physical Function, and Mental Health
Giovanni Sala, Daniela Jopp, Fernand Gobet, Madoka Ogawa, Yukie Masui, Hiroki Inagaki, Takeshi Nakagawa, Saori Yasumoto, Yoshiko Ishioka, Tatsuro Ishizaki
Engagement in leisure activities has been claimed to be highly beneficial in the elderly. Practicing such activities is supposed to help older adults to preserve cognitive function, physical function, and mental health, and thus to contribute to successful aging. We built an SEM model analyzing the impact of leisure activities on these constructs in a large sample of Japanese older adults (N = 809; age range 72-74). Engaging in leisure activities was positively associated with all the three successful aging indicators. These findings corroborate previous research carried out in Western countries and extend its validity to the population of Eastern older adults. Albeit correlational in nature, these results suggest that active engagement in leisure activities can help older adults to maintain cognitive, physical, and mental health. Future research will clarify whether there is a causal relationship between engagement in leisure activities and successful aging.
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Authors: 10
Total Words: 6476
Unqiue Words: 2378

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#2. The Roles of Action Selection and Actor Selection in Joint Task Settings
Motonori Yamaguchi, Dr Helen Joanne Wall, Bernhard Hommel
Studies on joint task performance have proposed that co-acting individuals co-represent the shared task context, which implies that actors integrate their co-actor’s task components into their own task representation as if they were all their own task. Evidence supporting this proposal has been supported by results of joint tasks in which each actor is assigned a single response where selecting a response is equivalent to selecting an actor. The present study used joint task switching, which has previously shown switch costs on trials following the actor’s own trial (intrapersonal switch costs) but not on trials that followed the co-actor’s trial (interpersonal switch costs), suggesting that there is no task co-representation. We examined whether interpersonal switch costs can be obtained when action selection and actor selection are confounded as in previous joint task studies. The present results confirmed this prediction, demonstrating that switch costs can occur within a single actor as well as between co-actors when there...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 10477
Unqiue Words: 2085

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#3. Multitasking with typical use of hearing aid noise reduction in older listeners
Tim Schoof, Pamela E Souza
Objective: Older hearing-impaired adults typically experience difficulties understanding speech in noise. Most hearing aids address this issue using digital noise reduction. While noise reduction does not necessarily improve speech recognition, it may reduce the resources required to process the speech signal. Those available resources may, in turn, aid the ability to perform another task while listening to speech (i.e., multitasking). This study examined to what extent changing the strength of digital noise reduction in hearing aids affects the ability to multitask. Design: Multitasking was measured using a dual-task paradigm, combining a speech recognition task and a visual monitoring task. The speech recognition task involved sentence recognition in the presence of six-talker babble at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 2 and 7 dB. Participants were fit with commercially-available hearing aids programmed under three noise reduction settings: off, mild, strong. Study sample: 18 hearing-impaired older adults. Results: There were...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 8444
Unqiue Words: 2368

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#4. Linking behavior change techniques and mechanisms of action: Triangulation of findings from literature synthesis and expert consensus
Marie Johnston, Rachel Carey, Lauren Connell Bohlen, Derek W Johnston, Alexander Rothman, Marijn de Bruin, Michael P Kelly, Hilary Groarke, Susan Michie
Background: To advance understanding of intervention effects, and improve theory development, a methodology for linking behavior change techniques (BCTs) to the processes through which they change behavior (i.e. their mechanisms of action (MoAs)) is required. Purpose: To triangulate evidence for hypothesized BCT-MoA links obtained in previous literature synthesis and expert consensus studies and present the results in an interactive, online tool. Methods: Two previous studies generated evidence on the frequency of links between the same 56 BCTs and 26 MoAs (1456 possible links). Concordance between the findings of the two studies were compared statistically. Uncertainties and differences between the two studies were reconciled by 16 behavior change experts using consensus development methods. Results: Multilevel models revealed agreement across the two studies for 25 of the 26 MoAs; the literature synthesis explained from 35.1% to 45.0% of variance in the expert consensus. The pre-set criteria for a link was achieved in both...
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Authors: 9
Total Words: 0
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#5. Intuitive Expertise and Irrelevant Options
Alex Wiegmann, Joachim Horvath, Karina Meyer
In the so-called push dilemma, an out-of-control speed-train is about to run over five people and can only be stopped by pushing a heavy person onto the tracks. Most lay people and moral philosophers consider it morally wrong to kill the heavy person. Unger (1992, 1996), however, argued that adding irrelevant options to the push dilemma would overturn this intuition. In this paper, we empirically test Unger’s claim with both lay people and expert moral philosophers. Including philosophical experts allowed us to investigate the so-called expertise defense, according to which the intuitions of philosophical experts are superior to the intuitions of lay people. Overall, we found that adding irrelevant options indeed increased the ratings for the “push option”. Moreover, we found that the intuitions of expert moral philosophers were no less susceptible to the presence of irrelevant options than lay people’s intuitions. We discuss how these findings bear on the expertise defense.
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 12018
Unqiue Words: 2933

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#6. Niche Diversity Can Explain Cross-Cultural Differences in Personality Structure
Paul Smaldino, Aaron Lukaszewski, Christopher von Rueden, Michael Gurven
The structure of personality refers to the covariation among specific behavioral patterns in a population. Statistically derived models of personality---such as the Big Five or HEXACO models---usually assume that the covariance structure of personality characteristics is a human universal. Cross-cultural studies, however, have challenged this view, finding that less complex societies exhibit stronger covariation among behavioral characteristics, resulting in fewer derived personality factors. To explain these results, we propose the niche diversity hypothesis, which predicts that a greater diversity of social and ecological niches elicits a more diverse set of multivariate behavioral profiles, and hence lower trait covariance, at the population level. We formalize this hypothesis as a computational model in which individuals assort into niches, which influence their behavioral traits. We find that the model provides strong support for the niche diversity hypothesis and reproduces empirical results from recent cross-cultural...
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 6573
Unqiue Words: 2436

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#7. Theory-based interviews with adults with mild-moderate learning disabilities and carers - implications for intervention development
Kiran Kaur Bains, Triece Turnbull
Adults with mild-moderate learning disabilities tend to have poorer diets and lower participation in physical activity than their counterparts in the general population. They also generally lead quite sedentary lifestyles. Several previous interventions have used social cognitive theory-based approaches to address this disparity and promote healthier lifestyles in this group to help prevent illness or aid disease management, with mixed results. The current study aimed to understand the perspectives of adults with mild-moderate learning disabilities and their carers of what may help them improve their lifestyles, using a social cognitive theory-based approach. Increasing mastery of practical skills, providing role models and opportunities to role model for others were key to improving self-efficacy of this group, whilst appropriate training for carers could increase their self-efficacy in health promotion. Attending to the relationship dyad between adults with learning disabilities and their carers also appeared to be important for...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 7306
Unqiue Words: 2246

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#8. Be the Change You Seek in Science
Michael Milham, Arno Klein
Ongoing debates regarding the virtues and challenges of implementing open science for brain imaging research mirror those of the larger scientific community. The present commentary acknowledges the merits of arguments on both sides, as well as the underlying realities that have forced so many to feel the need to resist the implementation of an ideal. Potential sources of top-down reform are discussed, along with the factors that threaten to slow their progress. The potential roles of generational change and the individual are discussed, and a starter list of actionable steps that any researcher can take, big or small, is provided.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 2987
Unqiue Words: 1286

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#9. Prestige and dominance based hierarchies exist in naturally occurring human groups, but are unrelated to task-specific knowledge
Charlotte Olivia Brand, Alex Mesoudi
Prestige and dominance are thought to be two evolutionarily distinct routes to gaining status and influence in human social hierarchies. Prestige is attained by having specialist knowledge or skills that others wish to learn, whereas dominant individuals use threat or fear to gain influence over others. Previous studies with groups of unacquainted students have found prestige and dominance to be two independent avenues of gaining influence within groups. We tested whether this result extends to naturally-occurring social groups. We ran an experiment with 30 groups of 5 people from Cornwall, UK (n=150). Participants answered general knowledge questions individually and as a group, and subsequently nominated a team representative to answer bonus questions to win money on behalf of the team. Participants then rated all other team-mates anonymously on scales of prestige, dominance, likeability and influence on the task. Using a model comparison approach with Bayesian multi-level models, we found that prestige and dominance ratings...
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Data for a postdoctoral project on prestige & dominance collected from a sample of participants in Cornwall.

Repository: GH_Kernow
User: lottybrand22
Language: R
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 8476
Unqiue Words: 2727

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#10. Psychoneuroendocrinology of Stress: Normative Development and Individual Differences
Jenalee Doom
Developmental psychology is rapidly becoming a neuropsychobiological field. No longer are we satisfied with documenting developmental trajectories of cognitions, emotions, and social behaviors, nor are we satisfied with describing and theorizing about how children’s transactions in the world influence development. To all of these still critical foci of developmental science, we have added goals of understanding how the genes we are born with, the experiences we have that overlay those genes with chemical marks that control their expression (epigenome), and the physiological responses in our brains and bodies all come together to write the story of our lives. Nowhere is the importance of a multilevel, multidisciplinary, genes-to-society perspective more apparent than in the study of stress and its role in development.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 36664
Unqiue Words: 7158

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