Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today in Life Sciences


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#1. The Relationship between Presence of Meaning, Search for Meaning, and Subjective Well-Being: A Three-Level Meta-Analysis based on the Meaning in Life Questionnaire
Jian-Bin Li, Kai Dou
Meaning in life can be understood as how much people experience life meaning, i.e., presence of meaning (POM) and how intensely they seek life meaning, i.e., search for meaning (SFM). Previous research has related POM and SFM to the subjective well-being (SWB) of individuals, but the findings are inconsistent. This meta-analysis investigates the overall relationship between POM/SFM and SWB by examining previous studies that have used Steger et al.’s (2006) Meaning in Life Questionnaire to assess POM and SFM. Results of 148 studies, reporting 726 effect sizes (N=92,169), suggest the effect size for the “POM–SWB” relationship is close to medium (ESz=0.418, p<.001, 95% CI=[0.390,0.446]). The effect is larger in life satisfaction and cross-sectional studies. The effect size for the “SFM–SWB” association is small (ESz=-.121, p<.001, 95% CI=[-0.155,-0.817]), with the effect being larger for negative affect, cross-sectional studies, and older participants. Interestingly, SFM is positively related to SWB for participants from...
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0.0 Mikeys
#2. Verdi-paper
Arianne Verhagen, Lex Bouter, Nander Wiegman, Henrica CW de Vet, john Ioannidis, Peter Croft
Background. To describe and compare love-related mortality in German and Italian operas of the 19th century, as operas are perfectly suited as a setting to study the relationship between love and premature death. Method. This is a historic cohort study of named characters in the 19th century operas by Italian and German composers included in a modern reference work. Follow-up lasted from the start of the opera until the final curtain. We calculated overall and cause-specific (e.g. love, violence) mortality, and proportional mortality ratios. Results: Among 76 eligible operas (23 German and 53 Italian) with 614 named characters, we recorded 118 deaths. The risk of dying young in opera is substantial, accounting for 94 of the 118 deaths. Violence was the main direct cause of death (62.7%) and love the main indirect cause (39.8%). The risk of dying of love was almost twice as high in Italian operas compared to German ones (46.8% versus 26.8%). Women experienced an almost double risk of dying of love compared to men (54.8% versus...
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 3689
Unqiue Words: 1521

0.0 Mikeys
#3. [Towards the analytical neurogoniometry]
Oleg Gradov
Нотченко, А. В., and Градов, О. В. Нейрогониометрия - аналитический метод нейроимиджинга. In Международный симпозиум по нейроимиджингу (22-24 мая 2012 г.) (2012), МГППУ, Центр нейро-когнитивных исследований (МЭГ-Центр), pp. 86–88.
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Total Words: 533
Unqiue Words: 353

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#4. The Grasp Cell Hypothesis: near-miss effect points to common neural machinery for controllable objects and concepts in posterior parietal cortex
Imogen Kruse
The near-miss effect in gambling behaviour occurs when an outcome which is close to a win outcome invigorates gambling behaviour notwithstanding lack of associated reward. In this paper I postulate that the processing of concepts which are deemed controllable is rooted in neurological machinery located in the posterior parietal cortex specialised for the processing of objects which are immediately actionable or controllable because they are within reach. I theorise that the use of a common machinery facilitates spatial influence on the perception of concepts such that the win outcome which is 'almost complete' is perceived as being 'almost within reach'. The perceived realisability of the win increases subjective reward probability and the associated expected action value which impacts decision-making and behaviour. This novel hypothesis is the first to offer a neurological model which can comprehensively explain many empirical findings associated with the near-miss effect as well as other gambling phenomena such as the ‘illusion...
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Total Words: 6929
Unqiue Words: 2440

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#5. Categorical phoneme labeling in poor readers does not depend on stimulus duration
Gabrielle O'Brien, Daniel McCloy, Jason D. Yeatman
It is established that individuals with dyslexia are less consistent at auditory phoneme categorization than typical readers. One hypothesis attributes differences in phoneme labeling to differences in auditory cue integration over time, suggesting that dyslexics’ performance would improve with longer exposure to informative phonetic cues. Here, the relationship between phoneme labeling and reading ability was investigated while manipulating the duration of steady-state auditory information available in a consonant-vowel syllable. Dyslexics obtained no more benefit from longer cues than did typical readers, suggesting that poor task performance is not explained by deficits temporal integration or temporal sampling.
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Total Words: 5763
Unqiue Words: 2048

0.0 Mikeys
#6. [Real-time on-chip patch-clamp automata with control feedback]
Oleg Gradov
Александров, П. Л., and Градов, О. В. Конвенционные патч-кламп-автоматы с обратной связью для многофакторных лабораторий на чипе с использованием интерфейсов вычисительных машин реального времени. Биотехносфера 3, 33 (2014), 13–17.
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Total Words: 1218
Unqiue Words: 568

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#7. Gain-loss framing enhances mnemonic discrimination in preschoolers
Chi Ngo
Episodic memory relies on discriminating among similar elements of episodes. Mnemonic discrimination is relatively poor at age 4, and then improves markedly. We investigated whether motivation to encode items with fine grain resolution would change this picture of development, using an engaging computer-administered memory task in which a bird ate items that made the bird healthier (gain frame), sicker (loss frame), or led to no change (control condition). Using gain-loss framing led to enhanced mnemonic discrimination in 4- and 5-year-olds, but did not affect older children or adults. Despite this differential improvement, age-related differences persisted. An additional finding was that loss framing led to greater mnemonic discrimination than gain framing across age groups. Motivation only partially accounts for development in mnemonic discrimination.
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Total Words: 5113
Unqiue Words: 1890

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#8. Models for Dyadic Data. Chapter in Cambridge Handbook of Research Methods in Clinical Psychology
Eduardo Estrada, David Sbarra
Chapter (accepted and in press) prepared for the forthcoming Cambridge Handbook of Research Methods in Clinical Psychology. Edited by A. Wright & M. N. Hallquist. We describe models for analyzing data from dyadic systems such as therapist-client, mother-children, or romantic partners, among others. We define key characteristics of dyadic systems and then identify clinical research questions related to dyadic systems and processes that unfold over time. We use these questions to select a set of statistical models and data analytic techniques for answering clinical research questions related to dyadic research.
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#9. Media Multitasking and Processing Style
Jesus Lopez, Joseph M Orr
Given the prevalence of multitasking today, it is critical to understand how multitasking affects the mind. Recent studies have suggested that frequent multitaskers perform worse on tasks requiring cognitive control. Nevertheless, others have suggested that frequent multitasking may lead to an improvement of parallel processing abilities, perhaps at the expense of serial processing. The current study examined whether the degree to which a person engages in media multitasking affects the balance between serial and parallel processing styles. Moreover, we examined the idea that heavy multitaskers would be biased toward the parallel processing of tasks. For this study, parallel processing was indexed by the divergent thinking paradigm, the AUT (Alternative Uses Task), and serial processing by the convergent thinking paradigm, the RAT (Remote Associates Test). Our hypothesis was that people who frequently media multitask would display higher measures of divergent thinking, while those who media multitask to a lesser degree would in...
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Total Words: 5519
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#10. Modifying attitudes about modified foods: increased knowledge leads to more positive attitudes
Jonathon McPhetres, Bastiaan Rutjens, Netta Weinstein, Jennifer Brisson
Genetically modified (GM) foods are often met with harsh public opposition, though little research has attempted to understand why this is. The research that does exist has focused on identifying the role of immutable beliefs, such as morality and politics, which are difficult to change. Therefore, research may benefit from identifying mutable predictors of science rejection—predictors which can be modified through interventions—so efforts can be made to increase public support for scientific advancements. Here we present four studies in which we investigate a lack of domain-specific science literacy—literacy of GM technology—as a strong and unique predictor of GM food skepticism. Results from Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that knowledge of GM technology is a unique predictor of GM food attitudes above general science knowledge and demographic controls. Study 3 (preregistered) demonstrates that the unique predictive value of GM-specific knowledge replicates in the US, the UK, and the Netherlands. In Study 4, we sought to overcome...
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