Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today

#1. Bayesian Meta-analysis of fMRI Image Data
Hyemin Han, Joonsuk Park
We composed an R-based script for Image-based Bayesian random-effect meta-analysis of previous fMRI studies. It meta-analyzes second-level test results of the studies and calculates Bayes Factors indicating whether the effect in each voxel is significantly different from zero. We compared results from Bayesian and classical meta-analyses by examining the overlap between the result from each method and that created by NeuroSynth as the target. As an example, we analyzed previous fMRI studies focusing on working memory extracted from NeuroSynth. The result from our Bayesian method showed a greater overlap than the classical method. In addition, Bayes Factors proved a better way to examine whether the evidence supported hypotheses than p-values. Given these, Bayesian meta-analysis provides neuroscientists with a better meta-analysis method for fMRI studies given the improved overlap with the NeuroSynth result and the practical and epistemological value of Bayes Factors that can directly test presence of an effect.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 6898
Unqiue Words: 1914

#2. "Outrage: good or bad?" Is the wrong question
Victoria Spring, Daryl Cameron, Mina Cikara
Brady and Crockett [1] agree with us that moral outrage can have positive social consequences. However, they argue that these benefits are outweighed by outrage’s costs: reducing effectiveness of collective action, limiting participation, and exacerbating intergroup conflict. At a high level, we take their commentary to ask: is outrage on balance a good or bad thing? And answer: a bad thing. In this reply, we respond to B&amp;C's argument and suggest that--rather than essentializing emotions such as outrage as fundamentally "good" or "bad"--researchers should focus on a diversity of outcomes.
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VictoriaLSpring: .@mollycrockett and @william__brady wrote an insightful reply to our @TrendsCognSci paper about the potential benefits of outrage. Here's our reply to their reply. Essentially: outrage can't be essentialized. https://t.co/WorKyYMY8h
PsyArXivBot: "Outrage: good or bad?" Is the wrong question https://t.co/Sx6ez7nbXp
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 1270
Unqiue Words: 702

#3. A data-driven model of women's facial attractiveness reliably outperforms theory-driven models
Iris J Holzleitner, Anthony J Lee, Amanda Hahn, Michal Kandrik, Jeanne Bovet, Julien P. Renoult, David Simmons, Oliver G. B. Garrod, Lisa DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones
Facial attractiveness plays a critical role in social interaction, influencing many different social outcomes. However, the factors that influence facial attractiveness judgments remain relatively poorly understood. Here, we used a sample of 594 female face images to compare the predictive utility of existing theory-driven models of facial attractiveness and a data-driven (i.e., theory- neutral) model. Our data-driven model reliably explained significantly more variance in attractiveness than did theory-driven models including various different combinations of traits commonly studied in facial attractiveness research (asymmetry, averageness, sexual dimorphism, body mass index, and representational sparseness). These results present important new evidence for the utility of data-driven approaches to studying facial attractiveness and highlight the limitations of current theory-driven approaches.
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Tweets
IrisHolzleitner: We have a new preprint testing theory-driven models of facial attractiveness vs a data-driven approach! Preprint at https://t.co/FnmMxvTWlV, data &amp; code at https://t.co/400SoIdoFx. Feedback as always most welcome! https://t.co/ydHpDSbJrW
FurlLab: RT @PsyArXivBot: A data-driven model of women's facial attractiveness reliably outperforms theory-driven models https://t.co/0AEN6W5W4B
jeffreymgirard: RT @PsyArXivBot: A data-driven model of women's facial attractiveness reliably outperforms theory-driven models https://t.co/0AEN6W5W4B
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Sample Sizes : [594]
Authors: 10
Total Words: 4113
Unqiue Words: 1505

#4. Moral Psychology of Sex Robots: an experimental study -- How Pathogen Disgust is associated with interhuman sex but not interandroid sex
Mika Koverola, Marianna Drosinou, Jussi Palomäki, Juho Halonen, Anton Kunnari, Marko Repo, Noora Lehtonen, Micahel Laakasuo
The idea of sex with robots seems to fascinate the general public, raising both enthusiasm and revulsion. We ran two experimental studies (Ns = 172 and 260) where we compared people’s reactions to variants of stories about a person visiting a bordello. Our results show that paying for the services of a sex robot is condemned less harshly than paying for the services of a human sex worker, especially if the payer is married. We have for the first time experimentally confirmed that people are somewhat unsure about whether or not using a sex robot while in a committed monogamous relationship should be considered as infidelity. We also shed light on the psychological factors influencing attitudes towards sex robots, including disgust sensitivity and interest in science fiction. Our results indicate that sex with a robot is indeed genuinely considered as sex, and a sex robot is genuinely seen as a robot; thus, we show that standard research methods on sexuality and robotics are applicable also in research on sex robotics.
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Tweets
MachineMorality: https://t.co/yvDg7c4rXP Moral Psychology of Sex Robots: an experimental study -- How Pathogen Disgust is associated with interhuman sex but not interandroid sex. Accepted at 4th INT. CONGRESS ON LOVE AND SEX WITH ROBOTS (13th – 14th DEC 2018). Available as a preprint @PsyArXiv
PsyArXivBot: : an experimental study-- How Pathogen Disgust is associated with interhuman sex but not interandroid sex https://t.co/Wa13LAgyc8
PsyArXiv: RT @MachineMorality: https://t.co/yvDg7c4rXP Moral Psychology of Sex Robots: an experimental study -- How Pathogen Disgust is associated…
MachineMorality: RT @MachineMorality: https://t.co/yvDg7c4rXP Moral Psychology of Sex Robots: an experimental study -- How Pathogen Disgust is associated…
BillyJansson: RT @MachineMorality: https://t.co/yvDg7c4rXP Moral Psychology of Sex Robots: an experimental study -- How Pathogen Disgust is associated…
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Sample Sizes : [172, 261]
Authors: 8
Total Words: 9459
Unqiue Words: 2935

#5. The developing bodily self: Posture constrains embodiment in children and adults
Janna M. Gottwald, Laura Bird, Samantha Keenaghan, Clare Diamond, Eliana Zampieri, Haleema Tosodduk, Andrew Bremner, Dorothy Cowie
For adults, the feeling of inhabiting a body (a sense of embodiment) is constrained by bottom-up multisensory information such as spatiotemporal correlations between visual and tactile sensations, and by top-down knowledge of the body such as its possible postures. However, to date it is unknown what kinds of body models children have. Here we asked whether common factors constrain embodiment in children and adults. In two experiments, we compared 6- to 7-year-olds’ and adults’ embodiment of a fake hand in the rubber hand illusion, measuring illusion-induced proprioceptive drift and questionnaire responses. In Experiment 1 (N = 120), the fake hand was either congruent with the participant’s own hand, or incongruent by 90° and, as a result, in an impossible posture with respect to the current position of their body. In Experiment 2 (N = 60), the fake hand was incongruent with the participant’s own hand by 20°, but still in a possible posture. Across both experiments, and in both children and adults, visual-proprioceptive congruency...
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Tweets
JannaGottwald: What kinds of body models do 6- to 7year-olds have? We show that posture constrains #embodiment in children as in adults (N = 180). w/ @SamKeenaghan @Andy_Bremner @dcowiedurham preprint @OSFramework: https://t.co/50ubNPy4Eb #rubberhandillusion #raincloudplots @PsyArXiv https://t.co/epmzzAR9PY
PsyArXivBot: The developing bodily self: Posture constrains embodiment in children and adults https://t.co/oK1ejdR3WY
SiliconEdge: RT @PsyArXivBot: The developing bodily self: Posture constrains embodiment in children and adults https://t.co/oK1ejdR3WY
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Total Words: 8885
Unqiue Words: 2773

#6. Identifying atypical change at the individual level from childhood to adolescence
Identifying change at the individual level is an important goal for researchers, educators, and clinicians. We present a set of statistical procedures for identifying individuals who depart from a normative change. Using Latent Change Scores models (LCS), we illustrate how the Individual Likelihood computed from a statistical model for change (IL) and from an alternative unrestricted model (ILsat) can be used to identify atypical trajectories in situations with several measurement occasions. Using LCS and linear regression, we also show how the observed and latent change residuals can be used to identify atypical individual change between 2 measurement occasions. We apply these methods to a measure of general verbal ability (from WISC–R), from a large sample of individuals assessed every 2 years from Grade 1 to 9. We demonstrate the efficiency of these techniques, illustrate their use to identify individual change in longitudinal data, and discuss potential applications in developmental research.
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PsyArXivBot: Identifying atypical change at the individual level from childhood to adolescence https://t.co/SaGrTAzuRi
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Sample Sizes : [106, 46]
Authors: 1
Total Words: 10929
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#7. Reaction to norm transgressions and Islamization threat in culturally tight and loose contexts: A case study of Germany vs. Russia
Liza Prokhorova, Johannes Klackl, Dmitrij Agroskin, Igor Grossmann, Yuri Alexandrov, Vladimir Apanovich, Boris Bezdenezhnykh, Eva Jonas
Prior research shows that North Americans and Western Europeans react to threats with defensive strategies based on behavioral approach vs. inhibition systems (BAS/BIS) -- i.e., a desire to approach a goal or to avoid a threat. In the present research, we explored whether this phenomenon is more pronounced in tight cultures (e.g., Germany) as compared to loose cultures (e.g., Russia), testing how Germans and Russians respond to societal threats. We expected that due to the higher levels of cultural tightness, Germans would show stronger defensive reactions to threats than Russians. Additionally, we investigated the role of need for tightness (i.e., need for strict regulation of social order) in threat management processes. In Study 1, Germans recalling violations of societal norms produced stronger rightward bias on the line bisection task than Russians, indicative of greater BAS activation in Germans than in Russians. In Study 2, we used frontal alpha asymmetry, providing the first cross-cultural test of BIS-BAS reactions...
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psywisdom: Reaction to norm transgressions and Islamization threat in culturally tight and loose contexts: A case study of Germany vs. Russia https://t.co/YqADOz4MpY via @OSFramework
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Total Words: 11380
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#8. Any way the brain blows? The nature of decision noise in random exploration
Siyu Wang, Robert Wilson
Human decision making is inherently variable. While this variability is often seen as a sign of suboptimality in human behavior, recent work suggests that randomness can actually be adaptive. An example arises when we must choose between exploring unknown options or exploiting options we know well. A little randomness in these explore-exploit' decisions is remarkably effective as it encourages us to explore options we might otherwise ignore. Moreover, people actually use such random exploration' in practice, increasing their behavioral variability when it is more valuable to explore. Despite this progress, the nature of adaptive `decision noise' for exploration is unknown -- specifically whether it is generated internally, from stochastic processes in the brain, or externally, from stochastic stimuli in the world. Here we show that, while both internal and external noise drive variability in behavior, the noise driving random exploration is predominantly internal. This suggests that random exploration depends on adaptive noise...
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Tweets
NRDlab: Another preprint from Siyu showing that the randomness in random exploration is likely generated internally in the brain https://t.co/1yzs1Qb58V
PsyArXivBot: Any way the brain blows? The nature of decision noise in random exploration https://t.co/4nQpJeSuxR
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Total Words: 6203
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#9. Repetition Blindness and Retrieval-Time Effects of Full- vs. Partial-Report Following the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) of Letters in Words
John R Vokey, Scott W. Allen
Although commonly accepted as an encoding/representational/perceptual phenomenon, repeti- tion deficits (“repetition blindness”) in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) can be shown to be markedly influenced by retrieval-time tasks independently of item encoding. We demonstrate such influences in a series of within-participant experiments where retrieval conditions are un- predictably varied after items have been experienced. Repetition deficits are demonstrated when full report of the presented item is required and in partial-report conditions where the repeated letter is included in the retrieval cue but not in partial-report conditions where the repeated letter is not included in the retrieval cue. Such effects are not expected if repetition deficits in RSVP are thought to be principally a function of the encoding/representation/perception of the trial experience.
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PsyArXivBot: Repetition Blindness and Retrieval-Time Effects of Full- vs. Partial-Report Following the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) of Letters in Words https://t.co/oOBRWxGycz
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Total Words: 8725
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#10. Lessons from a “failed” replication: The importance of taking action in exploration
Hashem Sadeghiyeh, Siyu Wang, Robert Wilson
In recent years, psychology has been rocked by the findings from a series of large scale studies in which classic, and even textbook, findings have failed to replicate. This ‘replication crisis,’ has lead to damaged careers and thrown who subfields of study into doubt. In part because the stakes are so high, a number of authors have pushed back on the notion that psychology is in fact in crisis, instead suggesting that failed replications may be due to unknown ‘moderator’ variables that vary between labs. Despite the intuitive appeal of this argument, relatively few examples exist where a failed replication has been ‘explained away’ in this manner. Here we present such a case in which a replication failed and through further analysis and a follow-up experiment we discovered a previously unknown moderator variable with high impact on the phenomenon we have been studying. More specifically, the phenomenon is the ‘exploration’: exploring unknown options in search of information, and the moderator variable is ‘acting’ to obtain...
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NRDlab: New preprint from grad students Hashem and Siyu showing the importance of taking action in exploration (and how failed replications must be interpreted with care!) https://t.co/yvbzxeBfPn
PsyArXivBot: Lessons from a "failed" replication: The importance of taking action in exploration https://t.co/Y9zwz2a7wO
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