Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today


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#1. Taking the perspectives of many people: humanization matters
Tian Ye, Fumikazu Furumi, Daniel Catarino da Silva, Antonia Hamilton
In a busy space, people encounter many other people with different viewpoints, but classic studies of VPT examine only one agent at a time. This paper explores the issue of selectivity in VPT when different people are available to interact with. We consider the hypothesis that humanisation impacts on VPT in four studies using virtual reality methods. Experiment 1 & 2 use the Director Task to show that for more humanised agents (an in-group member or a virtual human agent), participants were more likely to use VPT to achieve lower error rate. Experiment 3 & 4 used a two-agent social mental rotation task to show that participants are faster and more accurate to recognise items which are oriented towards a more humanised agent (an in-group member or a naturally-moving agent). All results support the claim that humanisation alters the propensity to engage in VPT in rich social contexts.
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#2. Empathic accuracy in adolescent girls with Turner Syndrome
Megan Klabunde, Aaron Piccirilli, Jennifer Bruno, Maria Gendron, Allan L Reiss
Objective: Girls and women with Turner Syndrome (TS) demonstrate social challenges and difficulties identifying negative emotions, specifically fear. Previous studies suggest that social deficits in TS could be associated with theory of mind (TOM) difficulties or visual-spatial processing abnormalities. To further examine the potential mechanisms underlying social deficits in TS, we administered the empathic accuracy task, a naturalistic social cognition task. Method: The performance of 14 girls with TS was compared to 12 age-matched typically developing girls (ages 12 to 17) on an empathic accuracy task and a (control) visual-motor line-tracking task. Empathic accuracy was compared across positive and negative emotionally valanced videos. Results: We found that girls with TS differ from typically developing girls on empathic accuracy ratings for negative videos; no differences were detected for the positive videos. No between group differences were found on the control line tracking task. Conclusion: Our findings expand upon...
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#3. The whole is equal to the sum of its parts: pigeons (Columba livia) and crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) do not perceive emergent configurations
Kazuhiro Goto
We previously demonstrated that chimpanzees, like humans, showed better accuracy and faster response time in discriminating visual patterns when the patterns were presented in redundant and uninformative contexts than when they were presented alone. In the present study, we examined the effect of redundant context on pattern discrimination in pigeons (Columba livia) and large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) using the same task and stimuli as those used in our previous study on chimpanzees. Birds were trained to search for an odd target among homogenous distractors. Each stimulus was presented in one of three ways: (1) alone, (2) with identical context that resulted in emergent configuration to chimpanzees (congruent context), or (3) with identical context that did not result in emergent configuration to chimpanzees (in- congruent context). In contrast to the facilitative effect of congruent contexts we previously reported in chimpanzees, the same contexts disrupted target localization performance in both pigeons and crows....
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drkgoto: Just uploaded a preprint "The whole is equal to the sum of its parts: pigeons (Columba livia) and crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) do not perceive emergent configurations" https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
asarin: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
myuuko: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
kaihiraishi: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
yo_ehara: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
riet911: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
momentumyy: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
oneko45: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
6_hotty: RT @drkgoto: プレプリントを公開しました。ハトとハシブトガラスはヒトやチンパンジーが知覚するゲシュタルトを知覚していないようです。https://t.co/ZN6pH1Sujd via @OSFramework
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#4. Effect of culture on memory for binding different types of visual information
John J Shaw
The degree of individualism or collectivism in a culture has observable effects on cognitive processing. Participants from collectivist cultures are less able to identify a previously displayed object when presented with a novel background than participants from individualist cultures. This can be interpreted as collectivist cultures more likely to process information field dependently. We tested explicitly whether collectivist or individualist cultures are more likely to bind foreground and background images and whether such binding is differentially affected for object-scene and action-scene combinations. Across three experiments participants viewed item-context composites, then completed a forced-choice recognition task. In Experiment 1, 61 UK and 57 Malaysian participants viewed object-scene composites, with UK participants significantly more accurate in correct composite recognition, with Experiment 2 demonstrating this difference was not due to cultural differences in object familiarity. In Experiment 3, 62 UK and 67...
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#5. What is the How: Participatory Sense-making as Consensual Validation of Phenomenal Data
Aleš Oblak
We propose a method of consensually validating phenomenal data. We believe such a method is necessary due to underreporting of explicit validation procedures in empirical phenomenological literature. We argue that descriptive science, exemplified by phenomenology and natural history, rely on nominalization for construction of intersubjectively accessible knowledge. We compare the epistemologies of phenomenology and natural history, pointing out that they differ in their attitudes towards the interpretation of texts and visual epistemology, however, they both rely on eidetic intuition of experts for knowledge construction. In developing our method, we started out with the prismatic approach, a method of researching embodied social dynamics. We then used debriefings on the experience of consensual validation to further refine the method. Importantly, we suggest that for a nominalization of experiential world to be intersubjectively accessible, a group of co-researchers has to independently construct said vocabulary. We therefore...
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#6. Visual and auditory contextual cues differentially influence alcohol-related inhibitory control
Adam Qureshi, Rebecca Monk, Charlotte Rebecca Pennington, Jennifer Rose Oulton
Introduction: Representing a more immersive testing environment, the current study exposed individuals to both alcohol-related visual and auditory cues to assess their respective impact on alcohol-related inhibitory control. It examined further whether individual variation in alcohol consumption and trait effortful control may predict inhibitory control performance. Method: Twenty-five U.K. university students (Mage = 23.08, SD = 8.26) completed an anti-saccade eye-tracking task and were instructed to look towards (pro) or directly away (anti) from alcohol-related and neutral visual stimuli. Short alcohol-related sound cues (bar audio) were played on 50% of trials and were compared with responses where no sounds were played. Results: Findings indicate that participants launched more incorrect saccades towards alcohol-related visual stimuli on anti-saccade trials, and responded quicker to alcohol on pro-saccade trials. Alcohol-related audio cues reduced latencies for both pro- and anti-saccade trials and reduced anti-saccade error...
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BillyJansson: RT @PsyArXivBot: Visual and auditory contextual cues differentially influence alcohol-related inhibitory control https://t.co/8TvouPEo03
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#7. Automatic landmark validation for face perception
Alex Jones, Christoph Schild, Benedict C. Jones
Much research in face perception relies on computer graphics techniques that require a significant delineation cost – the manual placement by individual researchers of a large number of landmarks, some of which are difficult to define, on a significant number of images. However, face detection algorithms that can quickly and automatically place these landmarks on face images have the potential to substantially reduce this delineation cost. Here, in two open face-image sets, we examine the utility of these automatic landmarking approaches for typical applications in face perception – facial averaging and measurement of facial attributes – by comparing them to manual landmarking methods. We find extremely high correlations between the measures made by automatic and manual landmarks in both image sets, indicating no appreciable loss of quality and a significant gain in efficiency. However, we also caution the use of unquestioned adoption of automatic methods, finding instances of automatic detection errors that substantially alter...
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Ben_C_J: @Richie_Research Here’s one! @AlexJonesPhD @SchildChristoph https://t.co/a2VMi1hQ8i
AlexJonesPhD: New from me @SchildChristoph and @Ben_C_J - if we use automatic face detectors to landmark faces, how similar are the results to manually placed landmarks (which take ages)? Inspired by @SchildChristoph's previous work, we find they are *very similar* https://t.co/F8cbATYIff 1/2
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#8. Extended Emulation Theory
Luca Rade
Emulators are internal models, first evolved for prediction in perception to shorten the feedback on motor action. However, the selective pressure on perception is to improve the fitness of decision-making, driving the evolution of emulators towards context-dependent payoff representation and integration of action planning, not enhanced prediction as is generally assumed. The result is integrated perceptual, memory, representational, and imaginative capacities processing external input and stored internal input for decision-making, while simultaneously updating stored information. Perception, recall, imagination, theory of mind, and dreaming are the same process with different inputs. Learning proceeds via scaffolding on existing conceptual infrastructure, a weak form of embodied cognition. Discrete concepts are emergent from continuous dynamics and are in a perceptual, not representational, format. Language is also in perceptual format and enables precise abstract thought. In sum, what was initially a primitive system for...
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#9. Evidence of tool use in a seabird?
Benjamin Farrar
Fayet, Hansen and Biro (1) provide two observations of Atlantic puffins, Fratercula arctica performing self-directed actions while holding a stick in their beaks. The authors interpret this as evidence of tool use as they suggest that the stick was manipulated towards the birds’ plumage with the specific goal of scratching. While these are certainly interesting observations, the authors do not address a simple and likely explanation of the self-directed actions that does not constitute tool use; that the observations occurred by chance. As such, their conclusions about tool use and cognition in seabirds are premature.
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bg_farrar: I just pre-printed my letter about the “Evidence of tool use in a seabird” paper, which provided two observations of stick holding and self-directed behaviour in puffins. In it, I argue that the conclusion of tool use is premature and likely incorrect. https://t.co/CE01o75Fp0
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#10. Review of the Landscape Model of Reading: Composition, dynamics, application
Pablo Bernabeu
Throughout the 1990s, two theories were used to explain how people understand texts. The gap between those was bridged by the Landscape Model (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1999). A review is offered, including a schematic presentation of the Landscape Model.
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