Top 10 Psyarxiv Papers Today


2.187 Mikeys
#1. Recovering Bistable Systems from Psychological Time Series
Jonas Haslbeck, Oisín Ryan
Conceptualizing mental disorders as complex dynamical systems has become a popular framework to study mental disorders. Especially bistable dynamical systems have received much attention, because their properties map well onto many characteristics of mental disorders. While these models were so far mostly used as stylized toy models, the recent surge in psychological time series data promises the ability to recover such models from data. In this paper we investigate how well popular (e.g., the Vector Autoregressive model) and more advanced (e.g., differential equation estimation) data analytic tools are suited to recover bistable dynamical systems from time series. Using a simulated high-frequency time series (measurement every six seconds) as an ideal case we show that while it is possible to recover global dynamics (e.g., position of fixed points, transition probabilities) it is difficult to recover the microdynamics (i.e., moment to moment interactions) of a bistable system. Repeating all analyses with a sampling frequency...
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EikoFried: New preprint by @jonashaslbeck & Oisín Ryan: "Recovering Bistable Systems from Psychological Time Series". Paper shows that analytic methods are unable to recover underlying #network processes well in case assessment doesn't have right frequency. https://t.co/qBX2htTMca https://t.co/gLp1I6QNl1
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2.178 Mikeys
#2. Improving Practices and Inferences in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jennifer Pfeifer, John Flournoy, Theresa W Cheng, Danielle Cosme, Jessica Flannery, Nandita Vijayakumar
As developmental cognitive neuroscientists, we share a common goal of being able to draw strong, defensible, reliable inferences from our neurobiological data. The past decade has seen growing concern about research practices and introspection regarding how to improve the field (Yarkoni, 2009). This manuscript focuses on the importance of distinguishing between confirmatory versus exploratory data analysis approaches in developmental cognitive neuroscience. Regarding confirmatory research, we discuss problems with analytic flexibility, appropriately instantiating hypotheses, and controlling the error rate given how we threshold data and correct for multiple comparisons. To counterbalance these concerns with confirmatory analyses, we present two complementary strategies. First, we discuss the advantages of working within an exploratory analysis framework, including estimating and reporting effect sizes, using parcellations, and conducting specification curve analyses. Second, we summarize best practices that support transparent...
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jennDSN: The #openscience oriented talk was based on a manuscript (preprint at https://t.co/GhAVTwyS7d) coauthored by @flourneuro @cecily_cardew @danicosme @j_flan & Nandi Vijayakumar. Writing this with them = awesome. 2/
etklapwijk: RT @jennDSN: The #openscience oriented talk was based on a manuscript (preprint at https://t.co/GhAVTwyS7d) coauthored by @flourneuro @ceci…
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2.008 Mikeys
#3. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Schools
Tyler L. Renshaw
This chapter reviews the status of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) in schools by raising and answering a handful of key questions relevant to both researchers and practitioners: (1) What are mindfulness and MBI? (2) How are MBI structured and used in schools? (3) How effective are MBI with students and teachers? (4) What is still unknown about MBI in schools? (5) How can MBI be applied within a multitiered system of supports in schools? The chapter concludes by suggesting that enthusiasm for MBI in schools must be checked-and-balanced by a realistic appraisal of the available empirical evidence to promote the best outcomes for students and teachers.
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ty_renshaw: Got a new––and fairly critical––chapter on *#mindfulness-based interventions* coming soon in a book on mind–body health in schools. For all ya'll who are interested ... here's the #PREPRINT! Hope this helps contribute to better research and practice. https://t.co/fwukT5IjJW
ty_renshaw: RT @PsyArXivBot: Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Schools https://t.co/z7ELlcwiUx
BillyJansson: RT @PsyArXivBot: Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Schools https://t.co/z7ELlcwiUx
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1.999 Mikeys
#4. Word meaning access: The one-to-many mapping from form to meaning
Jennifer M Rodd
This chapter focuses on the process by which stored knowledge about a word’s form (orthographic or phonological) maps onto stored knowledge about its meaning. This mapping is made challenging by the ambiguity that is ubiquitous in natural language: most familiar words can refer to multiple different concepts. This one-to-many mapping from form to meaning within the lexicon is a core feature of word-meaning access. Fluent, accurate word-meaning access requires that comprehenders integrate multiple cues in order to determine which of a word’s possible semantic features are relevant in the current context. Specifically, word-meaning access is guided by (i) distributional information about the a priori relative likelihoods of different word meanings and (ii) a wide range of contextual cues that indicate which meanings are most likely in the current context.
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tom_hartley: RT @JenniRodd: I appear to have written (another) book chapter on how people access the meanings of words: https://t.co/qnYCD3Bkm9 #NoMor…
JenniRodd: RT @JenniRodd: I appear to have written (another) book chapter on how people access the meanings of words: https://t.co/qnYCD3Bkm9 #NoMor…
DamsonEd: RT @JenniRodd: I appear to have written (another) book chapter on how people access the meanings of words: https://t.co/qnYCD3Bkm9 #NoMor…
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1.998 Mikeys
#5. Effect of a context shift on the inverse base rate effect
Angus Inkster, Chris Mitchell, René Schlegelmilch, Andy Wills
The Inverse Base Rate Effect (IBRE; Medin and Edelson (1988)) is a non-rational behavioural phenomenon in predictive learning. In the IBRE, participants learn that a stimulus compound AB leads to one outcome and that another compound AC leads to a different outcome. Importantly, AB and its outcome are presented three times as often as AC (and its outcome). On test, when asked which outcome to expect on presentation of the novel compound BC, participants preferentially select the rarer outcome, previously associated with AC. This is irrational because, objectively, the common outcome is more likely. Usually, the IBRE is attributed to greater attention paid to cue C than to cue B, and so is an excellent test for attentional learning models. The current experiment tested a simple model of attentional learning proposed by Le Pelley, Mitchell, Beesley, George, and Wills (2016) where attention paid to a stimulus is determined by its associative strength. This model struggles to capture the IBRE, but a potential solution suggested by the...
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1.998 Mikeys
#6. Impact of health warning labels on snack selection: an online experimental study
Natasha Clarke, Emily Pechey, Eleni Mantzari, Anna Blackwell, Katie De-loyde, Richard Morris, Marcus Munafo, Theresa Marteau, Gareth J Hollands
Background Excessive consumption of energy-dense food increases the risk of obesity, which in turn increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and most non-smoking-related cancers. Health warning labels (HWLs) that communicate the adverse health consequences of excess energy consumption could reduce intake of energy-dense foods. The aim of the current study was to estimate the impact on selection of energy-dense snacks of (a) image-and-text HWLs (b) text-only HWLs and (c) calorie information. Methods A between-subjects, 3 (HWL: image-and-text, text-only, no label) x 2 (calorie information: present, absent), factorial experimental design. Participants (N=4,134) were randomised to view a selection of energy-dense and non-energy-dense snacks with one of five label types or no label. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack in a hypothetical vending machine task. Results The proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack was...
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1.998 Mikeys
#7. Toward behavioural climate policy: Framing of carbon pricing policy has deep effects on Canadian attitudes and behaviours
Matthew Martin, Jayden Rae, Brooke Struck, Sekoul Krastev
This study looked at the effects of framing and payment structure on the public reception of a carbon pricing policy. The study closely mirrored the design of the Federal backstop of the Pan- Canadian Framework, under which consumers receive a direct payment to offset the carbon taxes collected in their province. There were four key findings. First, framing the payment as an “incentive” increased the likelihood of consumers spending their return on green renovations as opposed to everyday purchases. Alternatively, calling the payment a “rebate” pushed people towards spending the money on everyday expenses.Second, if the policy was designed so that payments were disbursed monthly in smaller amounts, they were more likely to be spent on everyday purchases. Conversely, annual lump sum payments were more likely to be allocated towards savings. Third, there was an interaction effect between framing the payment as a “dividend” and the lump sum annual payment structure; in this case, consumers were much more likely to put the money...
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PsyArXivBot: Toward behavioural climate policy: Framing of carbon pricing policy has deep effects on Canadian attitudes and behaviours https://t.co/g10HOyxiR8
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Unqiue Words: 1316

1.998 Mikeys
#8. A computational model of context-dependent encodings during category learning
Paulo Carvalho, Robert Goldstone
Although current exemplar models of category learning are flexible and can capture how different features are emphasized for different categories, they still lack in the flexibility to adapt to local pressures in category learning, such as the effect of different sequences of study. In this paper we introduce a new model of category learning, the Sequential Attention Theory Model (SAT-M), in which the encoding of each presented item is influenced not only by its category assignment (global context) as in other exemplar models, but also by how its properties relate to the properties of temporally neighboring items (local context). We demonstrate that SAT-M is able to capture the effect of local context and predict not only learning but also learners’ attentional patterns during learning.
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1.998 Mikeys
#9. Predictive context biases binocular rivalry onset in children and adults
Christian Valuch, Louisa Kulke
Expectations based on prior knowledge shape perceptual experience, which might also be relevant for high-level perceptual skills such as the ability to understand other peoples’ thoughts and intentions, called Theory of Mind (ToM). We tested whether the extent to which expectations influence perception correlates with individual differences in ToM in children (12–13 years) and adults (18–25 years). In both age groups, perceptual expectations induced by a predictive temporal context reliably modulated the onset of binocular rivalry (BR), on average, to a similar degree. In contrast, adult participants scored better on measures of ToM compared to children. In both groups, we observed considerable interindividual variability regarding the influence of a predictive context on BR, which were closely associated with differences in sensory eye dominance. The influence of expectations on basic visual processes is fully developed at an earlier age, whereas high-level perceptual skills continue to evolve from adolescence to adulthood. The...
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PsyArXivBot: Predictive context biases binocular rivalry onset in children and adults https://t.co/0yzRlDvlho
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1.998 Mikeys
#10. Beliefs about emotion shift dynamically alongside momentary affect
Jennifer Veilleux, Elise Warner, Danielle Baker, Kaitlyn Chamberlain
This study examined if beliefs about emotion change across emotional contexts in daily life, and investigated whether people with prominent features of borderline personality pathology experience greater shifts in emotion beliefs during emotional states compared to people without borderline features. Undergraduate participants with (n = 49) and without borderline features (n = 50) completed a one week ecological momentary assessment study where 7x/day they provided ratings of affect, nine different beliefs about emotion and indicators of momentary self-efficacy. Results indicated a significant between-person element to emotion beliefs, supporting the notion of beliefs as relatively schematic. In addition, people with borderline features generally experienced greater instability of beliefs over time compared to people without borderline features. In addition, most of the beliefs about emotion shifted with either positive or negative affect. For many of the emotion beliefs, the relationships between affect and belief were...
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PsyArXivBot: Beliefs about emotion shift dynamically alongside momentary affect https://t.co/zSTGEfY5qQ
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Total Words: 12177
Unqiue Words: 3147

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