Multiple cyanotoxin congeners produced by sub-dominant cyanobacterial taxa in riverine cyanobacterial and algal mats
Benthic cyanobacterial proliferations in rivers are have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide. In the Eel and Russian rivers of California, more than a dozen dog deaths have been attributed to cyanotoxin toxicosis since 2000. Periphyton proliferations in these rivers comprise multiple cyanobacterial taxa capable of cyanotoxin production, hence there is uncertainty regarding which taxa are producing toxins. In this study, periphyton samples dominated by the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena spp. and Microcoleus spp. and the green alga Cladophora glomerata were collected from four sites in the Eel River catchment and one site in the Russian River. Samples were analysed for potential cyanotoxin producers using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in concert with Sanger sequencing. Cyanotoxin concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry, and anatoxin quota determined using droplet digital PCR. Sequencing indicated Microcoleus sp. and Nodularia sp. were the putative producers of anatoxins and nodularins, respectively, regardless of the dominant taxa in the mat. Anatoxin concentrations in the mat samples varied from 0.1 to 18.6 μg g-1 and were significantly different among sites (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon test); however, anatoxin quotas were less variable (< 5-fold). Dihydroanatoxin-a was generally the most abundant variant in samples comprising 38% to 71% of the total anatoxins measured. Mats dominated by the green alga C. glomerata contained both anatoxins and nodularin-R at concentrations similar to those of cyanobacteria-dominated mats. This highlights that even when cyanobacteria are not the dominant taxa in periphyton, these mats may still pose a serious health risk and indicates that more widespread monitoring of all mats in a river are necessary.
NurtureToken New!

Token crowdsale for this paper ends in

Buy Nurture Tokens

Authors

Are you an author of this paper? Check the Twitter handle we have for you is correct.

Laura T Kelly (add twitter)
Keith Bouma-Gregson (edit)
Jonathan Puddick (edit)
Rich Fadness (add twitter)
Ken G Ryan (add twitter)
Timothy W Davis (edit)
Susanna A Wood (add twitter)
Category

Ecology

Ask The Authors

Ask the authors of this paper a question or leave a comment.

Read it. Rate it.
#1. Which part of the paper did you read?

#2. The paper contains new data or analyses that is openly accessible?
#3. The conclusion is supported by the data and analyses?
#4. The conclusion is of scientific interest?
#5. The result is likely to lead to future research?

Github
User:
None (add)
Repo:
None (add)
Stargazers:
0
Forks:
0
Open Issues:
0
Network:
0
Subscribers:
0
Language:
None
Youtube
Link:
None (add)
Views:
0
Likes:
0
Dislikes:
0
Favorites:
0
Comments:
0
Other
Sample Sizes (N=):
Inserted:
Words Total:
Words Unique:
Source:
Abstract:
None
07/17/19 04:01AM
6,932
2,510
Tweets
Nobody has tweeted about this paper.
Images
Related