Shapley Interpretation and Activation in Neural Networks
We propose a novel Shapley value approach to help address neural networks'
interpretability and "vanishing gradient" problems. Our method is based on an
accurate analytical approximation to the Shapley value of a neuron with ReLU
activation. This analytical approximation admits a linear propagation of
relevance across neural network layers, resulting in a simple, fast and
sensible interpretation of neural networks' decision making process.
We then derived a globally continuous and non-vanishing Shapley gradient,
which can replace the conventional gradient in training neural network layers
with ReLU activation, and leading to better training performance. We further
derived a Shapley Activation (SA) function, which is a close approximation to
ReLU but features the Shapley gradient. The SA is easy to implement in existing
machine learning frameworks. Numerical tests show that SA consistently
outperforms ReLU in training convergence, accuracy and stability.