Universal fluctuations of reduced density matrices in maximally noisy or ergodic quantum systems and typicality
For a quantum system in a macroscopically large volume $V$, prepared in a pure state and subject to maximally noisy or ergodic unitary dynamics, the reduced density matrix of any sub-system $v\ll V$ is almost surely totally mixing. We show that the fluctuations around this limiting value, evaluated according to the invariant measure of these unitary flows, are captured by the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) of random matrix theory. An extension of this statement, applicable when the unitary transformations conserve the energy but are maximally noisy or ergodic on any energy shell, allows to decipher the fluctuations around canonical typicality. According to typicality, if the large system is prepared in a generic pure state in a given energy shell, the reduced density matrix of the sub-system is almost surely the canonical Gibbs state of that sub-system. We show that the fluctuations around the Gibbs state are encoded in a deformation of the GUE whose covariance is specified by the Gibbs state. Contact with the eigenstate thermal hypothesis (ETH) is discussed.
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Michel Bauer (add twitter)
Denis Bernard (add twitter)
Tony Jin (edit)
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07/18/19 06:02PM
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