Top 10 Eartharxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


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#1. What Even Is 'Climate'?
Oliver Bothe
Although the concept of climate is easy to understand, there is not any uncontroversial definition of it. Most definitions fall back to the simple formulation that 'climate is the statistics of weather'. Recent attempts at a definition called versions of this saying vague. Climate is policy-relevant, and discussions on climate and climate change benefit from clarity on the topic. Beyond the policy relevance a definition should also be valid for scientific purposes and for individual views. It has to account for a general concept and individual instances of climate. Here, I try to highlight why the flexibility and the immediacy of the colloquial definition fit the topic. This defence shifts the lack of a clear definition towards the term 'weather' and the time-scales separating weather and climate.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 8762
Unqiue Words: 2653

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#2. Spatial association between regionalizations using the information-theoretical V-measure
Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski
There is a keen interest in inferring spatial associations between different variables spanning the same study area. We present a method for quantitative assessment of such associations in the case where spatial variables are either in the form of regionalizations or in the form of thematic maps. The proposed index of spatial association – called the V-measure – is adapted from a measure originally developed in computer science, where it was used to compare clusterings, to spatial science for comparing regionalizations. The V-measure is rooted in the information theory and, at its core, it is equivalent to mutual information between the two regionalizations. Here we re-introduce the V-measure in terms of spatial variance analysis instead of information theory. We identify three different contexts for application of the V-measure, comparative, associative, and derivative, and present an example of an application for each of them. In the derivative context, the V-measure is used to select an optimal number of regions for...
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RosanaFerrero: RT @jakub_nowosad: How to compare two categorical maps? Using SABRE - the Spatial Association Between REgionalizations method. See our #rstats package at https://t.co/obKx5R5hWb and the paper at https://t.co/6h7IZLnIAc #openscience @EarthArXiv #sil https://t.co/HVXWqpYW5S
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 7027
Unqiue Words: 1935

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#3. Global assessment and mapping of changes in mesoscale landscapes: 1992–2015
Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski, Pawel Netzel
Monitoring global land cover changes is important because of concerns about their impact on environment and climate. The release by the European Space Agency (ESA) of a set of worldwide annual land cover maps covering the 1992–2015 period makes possible a quantitative assessment of land change on the global scale. While ESA land cover mapping effort was motivated by the need to better characterize global and regional carbon cycles, the dataset may benefit a broad range of disciplines. To facilitate utilization of ESA maps for broad-scale problems in landscape ecology and environmental studies, we have constructed a GIS-based vector database of mesoscale landscapes – patterns of land cover categories in 9km × 9km tracts of land. First, we reprojected ESA maps to the Fuller projection to assure that each landscape in the database has approximately the same size and shape so the patterns of landscapes at different locations can be compared. Second, we calculated landscape attributes including its compositions in 1992 and 2015,...
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jakub_nowosad: How did the landscapes change on a 🌍 global scale between 1992 and 2015? You can learn about it in our new paper at https://t.co/UwSru5vV4W or the @EarthArXiv preprint at https://t.co/mXWRlvmn97. #sil https://t.co/vhKRZtsD6p
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 8147
Unqiue Words: 2307

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#4. Towards machine ecoregionalization of Earth’s landmass using pattern segmentation method
Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski
We present and evaluate a quantitative method for delineation of ecophysigraphic regions throughout the entire terrestrial landmass. The method uses the new pattern-based segmentation technique which attempts to emulate the qualitative, weight-of-evidence approach to a delineation of ecoregions in a computer code. An ecophysiographic region is characterized by homogeneous physiography defined by the cohesiveness of patterns of four variables: land cover, soils, landforms, and climatic patterns. It is expected that such a region is likely to be characterized by a single ecosystem. In this paper, we focus on the first-order approximation of the proposed method - delineation on the basis of the patterns of the land cover alone. We justify this approximation by the existence of significant spatial associations between various physiographic variables. Resulting ecophysiographic regionalization (ECOR) is shown to be more physiographically homogeneous than existing global ecoregionalizations (Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (TEW) and...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 11487
Unqiue Words: 3472

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#5. Global inventory of landscape patterns and latent variables of landscape spatial configuration
Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski
We present a regionalization of the entire Earth’s landmass into land units of homogeneous landscape patterns. The input to the regionalization is a high resolution Global Land Cover (GLC) dataset. The GLC is first divided into local landscapes – small non-overlapping square blocks of GLC cells. These blocks are agglomerated into much larger land units using a pattern-based segmentation algorithm. These units are tracts encompassing cohesive patterns of land cover and the procedure divides the entire landmass into tracts of land with discernibly different patterns. We characterize a pattern in each unit by a set of 39 landscape metrics. The resulting spatial database of land units is the major product of this study. We make this database freely available to the community in order to provide foundational information for studies aiming at explaining relationships between landscape pattern and ecological process and between the process and patterns and their controlling factors. The procedure of obtaining the database is described,...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 8362
Unqiue Words: 2700

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#6. Ratcheting up ambition in climate policy
Bishal Bharadwaj, Christopher Brierley
The historic Paris Agreement aims to constrain the peak increase in global mean temperature to 1.5 °C, or at least well below 2 °C. Every country has committed to device their own “nationally determined contributions” towards this target. These contributions are only proscribed for the coming 10-15 years with a regular reassessment of them against the global target. Here we use a global climate-economy model to explore consequences of differing levels of ambition during these reanalysis. We find that without substantially increased ambition the probability of avoiding 2 °C of warming is marginal. We present several plausible future trajectories that significantly increase the probability of avoiding 2 °C, but are unable to keep global temperatures below 1.5 °C. We advocate countries engage in the reassessment process soon and with high ambitions as catastrophic climate change can effectively be ruled out by such actions.
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cmbrierley: @Bishal_Bhardwaj @AssertPub_dev Hi Bishal, I've not come across @AssertPub_dev before, but it's nice to see that people are looking this research (https://t.co/bntJMfee5H). Certainly confirms my suspicion that posting it on @EarthArXiv is a great source of dissemination for the @EcrcUcl Research Reports series
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 4831
Unqiue Words: 1780

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#7. Multi-scale segmentation algorithm for pattern-based partitioning of large categorical rasters
Jaroslaw Jasiewicz, Tomasz Stepinski, Jacek Niesterowicz
Analyzing large Earth Observation (EO) data on the broad spatial scales frequently involves regionalization of patterns. To automate this process we present a segmentation algorithm designed specifically to delineate segments containing quasi-stationary patterns. The algorithm is designed to work with patterns of a categorical variable. This makes it possible to analyze very large spatial datasets (for example, a global land cover) in their entirety. An input categorical raster is first tessellated into small square tiles to form a new, coarser, grid of tiles. A mosaic of categories within each tile forms a local pattern, and the segmentation algorithm partitions the grid of tiles while maintaining the cohesion of pattern in each segment. The algorithm is based on the principle of seeded region growing (SRG) but it also includes segment merging and other enhancements to segmentation quality. Our key contribution is an extension of the concept of segmentation to grids in which each cell has a non-negligible size and contains a...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 9884
Unqiue Words: 2691

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#8. Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes
Rodolfo Luiz Bezerra Nóbrega, Alphonce C. Guzha, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S. S. Amorim, Eduardo G. Couto, Harold J. Hughes, Hermann F. Jungkunst, Gerhard Gerold
Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs. pasture) in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Our results indicate that the conversion of natural landscapes to pastures increases carbon and nutrient fluxes via streamflow in both biomes. These changes were the greatest in total inorganic carbon in the Amazon and in potassium in the Cerrado, representing a 5.0- and 5.5-fold increase in the fluxes of each biome, respectively. We found that stormflow, which is often neglected in studies on stream...
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 16196
Unqiue Words: 5044

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#9. Protected Places: A Survey of Laws on Archaeological Site and Cave Location Confidentiality and Their Potential Impact on Library Reference Policies and Services
Linda Zellmer
Librarians who work with maps and other forms of spatial information are often asked for information about the location of a place. These questions can range from the location of a village or farm where an ancestor lived to more cryptic questions, such as the location of the Garden of Eden based on its Biblical description. Most librarians will attempt to answer locational questions by directing users to resources such as gazetteers, atlases, maps and plat books. However, the locations of archaeological sites and caves are protected by Federal and state laws. This article provides a summary of Federal and state laws protecting archaeological sites and caves, the reasons for the laws, issues to consider when asked for locations of archaeological sites and caves, and additionally suggests a policy for dealing with users requesting information about archaeological sites and caves.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 10181
Unqiue Words: 3006

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#10. Mangrove pollen of Indonesia and its suitability as a sea-level indicator
Simon Engelhart, Benjamin Horton, David H. Roberts, Charlotte L. Bryant, D. Reide Corbett
We investigated the mangroves of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, to assess their potential as proxies for reconstructing sea level during the Holocene. Initial investigations confirmed that the mangrove species demonstrate zonations parallel to the shoreline and are dominated by the family Rhizophoraceae with Avicennia, Heritiera and Sonneratia also important constituents of the mangroves. We investigated the vertical distributions of pollen assemblages at three sites. Partial CCA analysis demonstrated that at all three sites, elevation was a significant control on the distribution of pollen assemblages in surface samples. We combined the three contemporary transects to develop a regional transfer function to explain the relationship between the surface assemblages and elevations using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The developed transfer function indicated mangrove pollen can be used as a precise indicator of past sea levels with an error of ±0.22 m. The transfer function was applied to two fossil cores from the Wakatobi...
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URISeaLevel: Took me far longer than I planned but finally got around to uploading my first post print to @EarthArXiv starting with my first first-authored paper from 2007 on mangrove pollen. Going to be a slow project but plan to upload all papers eventually: https://t.co/zq0bpUrV4I
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 10589
Unqiue Words: 3777

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