Top 10 Eartharxiv Papers Today in Social And Behavioral Sciences


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#1. Global inventory of landscape patterns and latent variables of landscape spatial configuration
Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski
We present a regionalization of the entire Earth’s landmass into land units of homogeneous landscape patterns. The input to the regionalization is a high resolution Global Land Cover (GLC) dataset. The GLC is first divided into local landscapes – small non-overlapping square blocks of GLC cells. These blocks are agglomerated into much larger land units using a pattern-based segmentation algorithm. These units are tracts encompassing cohesive patterns of land cover and the procedure divides the entire landmass into tracts of land with discernibly different patterns. We characterize a pattern in each unit by a set of 39 landscape metrics. The resulting spatial database of land units is the major product of this study. We make this database freely available to the community in order to provide foundational information for studies aiming at explaining relationships between landscape pattern and ecological process and between the process and patterns and their controlling factors. The procedure of obtaining the database is described,...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 8362
Unqiue Words: 2700

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#2. Multi-scale segmentation algorithm for pattern-based partitioning of large categorical rasters
Jaroslaw Jasiewicz, Tomasz Stepinski, Jacek Niesterowicz
Analyzing large Earth Observation (EO) data on the broad spatial scales frequently involves regionalization of patterns. To automate this process we present a segmentation algorithm designed specifically to delineate segments containing quasi-stationary patterns. The algorithm is designed to work with patterns of a categorical variable. This makes it possible to analyze very large spatial datasets (for example, a global land cover) in their entirety. An input categorical raster is first tessellated into small square tiles to form a new, coarser, grid of tiles. A mosaic of categories within each tile forms a local pattern, and the segmentation algorithm partitions the grid of tiles while maintaining the cohesion of pattern in each segment. The algorithm is based on the principle of seeded region growing (SRG) but it also includes segment merging and other enhancements to segmentation quality. Our key contribution is an extension of the concept of segmentation to grids in which each cell has a non-negligible size and contains a...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 9884
Unqiue Words: 2691

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#3. Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes
Rodolfo Luiz Bezerra Nóbrega, Alphonce C. Guzha, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S. S. Amorim, Eduardo G. Couto, Harold J. Hughes, Hermann F. Jungkunst, Gerhard Gerold
Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs. pasture) in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Our results indicate that the conversion of natural landscapes to pastures increases carbon and nutrient fluxes via streamflow in both biomes. These changes were the greatest in total inorganic carbon in the Amazon and in potassium in the Cerrado, representing a 5.0- and 5.5-fold increase in the fluxes of each biome, respectively. We found that stormflow, which is often neglected in studies on stream...
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 16196
Unqiue Words: 5044

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#4. Protected Places: A Survey of Laws on Archaeological Site and Cave Location Confidentiality and Their Potential Impact on Library Reference Policies and Services
Linda Zellmer
Librarians who work with maps and other forms of spatial information are often asked for information about the location of a place. These questions can range from the location of a village or farm where an ancestor lived to more cryptic questions, such as the location of the Garden of Eden based on its Biblical description. Most librarians will attempt to answer locational questions by directing users to resources such as gazetteers, atlases, maps and plat books. However, the locations of archaeological sites and caves are protected by Federal and state laws. This article provides a summary of Federal and state laws protecting archaeological sites and caves, the reasons for the laws, issues to consider when asked for locations of archaeological sites and caves, and additionally suggests a policy for dealing with users requesting information about archaeological sites and caves.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 10181
Unqiue Words: 3006

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#5. Communicating Unnatural Disasters
Robin Lacassin, Iain Stewart, Sylvain Lavelle
Off the back of the 2017 hurricanes we extend the notion of human-influenced meteo-hydro hazards to include deeper geophysical events. We question where to place Human responsibility in a changing world, and we outline ways to bridge the gaps between scientist’s technical knowledge and ‘meaning’ as it is understood by people at risk. This short Op-ed has been rejected by Science after two rounds of exchanges with editors (resulting in substantial revisions) then 2 peer-reviews. With the aim to open the debate before reshaping the paper, we upload the preprint to EarthArXiv. We welcome comments, discussions, suggestions, inputs !
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 1715
Unqiue Words: 979

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#6. The crisis of a paradigm. A methodological interpretation of Tohoku and Fukushima catastrophe
Robin Lacassin, Sylvain Lavelle
The 2011 Japanese disaster often presented as a ‘new Chernobyl’ accumulated the effects of earthquake, tsunami and of the subsequent nuclear accident at Fukushima. In the light of this disaster, we review methodological rea- sons both from geophysical and philosophical perspectives that lead the scientific and technological communities to flawed conclusions, prime cause of the disaster. The origin of the scientific mistake lies in several factors that challenge a dominant paradigm of seismology: the shallower part of the subduction was considered as weak, un- able to produce large earthquakes; a complete breakage of the fault up to the sea-floor was excluded. Actually, it appears that such complete rupture of the subduction interface did characterize megathrust ruptures, but also that hazard evaluations and technical implementation were in line with the flawed consensual paradigm. We give a philosophical interpretation to this mistake by weighing the opposition between a prescriptive account and a descriptive account of the...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 12520
Unqiue Words: 3858

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#7. Pastoralism may have delayed the end of the green Sahara
Christopher Brierley, Katie Manning, Mark Maslin
The benefits of pastoralism for marginal, arid environments are often not appreciated. One notable past example of the human response to encroaching desertification comes from the regional climate deterioration after the most recent African Humid Period, which ended around 5,500 years ago. Recent evidence points to a population expansion in northern Africa prior to this, associated with the introduction of pastoralism. Here we consider the role, if any, of this population on the subsequent ecological collapse. Using a climate-vegetation model driven by global forcings, we estimate the natural length of the most recent African Humid Period (AHP). The model indicates that the system was most susceptible to collapse between 7-6 ka, which is at least 500 years before the observed collapse. Together with archaeological and ethnographic evidence from northern Africa, this suggests that the inclusion of increasing elements of pastoralism after 7 ka was an effective adaptation to the regional environmental changes. Pastoralism also...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 7746
Unqiue Words: 3234

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#8. Effects of spatial resolution on slope and aspect derivation for regional-scale analysis
Carlos Grohmann
This paper investigates differences between morphometric parameters (slope and aspect) derived from a resampled DEM and resampled morphometric data derived from a medium resolution DEM, with examples for three study areas in South America selected to represent flatlands, hilly terrain, and mountain ranges. Using a low resolution DEM for regional scale morphometric analysis is not an optimal choice, since attenuation of elevation will strongly affect the distribution of calculated parameters. Unless bounded by computational constraints, one should choose to derive basic morphometric parameters from higher resolution data, and resample it to a coarser resolution as needed.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 3514
Unqiue Words: 1540

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#9. Geological applications of digital terrain analysis
Carlos Grohmann
Editorial to the IJGIS Special Issue on "Geological applications of digital terrain analysis". In this volume, the modern advances in the field of geological terrain analysis are presented, while emphasis is given to the quantitative analysis of modern datasets.
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 962
Unqiue Words: 548

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#10. Spatial association between regionalizations using the information-theoretical V-measure
Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski
There is a keen interest in inferring spatial associations between different variables spanning the same study area. We present a method for quantitative assessment of such associations in the case where spatial variables are either in the form of regionalizations or in the form of thematic maps. The proposed index of spatial association – called the V-measure – is adapted from a measure originally developed in computer science, where it was used to compare clusterings, to spatial science for comparing regionalizations. The V-measure is rooted in the information theory and, at its core, it is equivalent to mutual information between the two regionalizations. Here we re-introduce the V-measure in terms of spatial variance analysis instead of information theory. We identify three different contexts for application of the V-measure, comparative, associative, and derivative, and present an example of an application for each of them. In the derivative context, the V-measure is used to select an optimal number of regions for...
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 7027
Unqiue Words: 1935

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