Top 7 Eartharxiv Papers Today in Physical Sciences And Mathematics


2.005 Mikeys
#1. Stable and Radioisotope Systematics Reveal Fossil Water as Fundamental Characteristic of Arid Orogenic-Scale Groundwater Systems
Brendan J. Moran, David Boutt, Lee Ann Munk
In arid and semi-arid regions, persistent hydrological imbalances illuminate the considerable gaps in our spatiotemporal understanding of fundamental catchment-scale governing mechanisms. The Salar de Atacama basin is the most extreme example of these groundwater-dominated systems and as such is an ideal place to probe these unresolved questions. Geochemical and hydrophysical observations indicate that groundwaters discharging to the basin reflect a large regional system integrated over very long time-scales. The groundwater here, as in other arid regions is a critical freshwater resource subject to substantial demand from competing interests, particularly as development of its world-class lithium brine deposit expands. Utilizing a uniquely large and comprehensive set of 2H, 18O and Tritium (3H) tracer data we demonstrate that much of the presumed recharge area on the Altiplano-Puna plateau exhibits isotopic signatures quite distinct from waters presently discharging within the endorheic Salar de Atacama watershed. δ18O values...
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Dan_E_Ibarra: @EarthArXiv preprint by @BMoranimal @DavidBoutt and @LitioReina: "Stable and Radioisotope Systematics Reveal Fossil Water as Fundamental Characteristic of Arid Orogenic-Scale Groundwater Systems" https://t.co/blxqSwwpGC 🌎
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2.002 Mikeys
#2. Logarithmic growth of dikes from a depressurizing magma chamber
Benjamin E. Grossman-Ponemon, Elias Heimisson, Adrian J. Lew, Paul Segall
Dike propagation is an intrinsically multiphase problem, where deformation and fluid flow are intricately coupled in a fracture process. Here we perform the first fully-coupled simulations of dike propagation in two dimensions, accounting for depressurization of a circular magma chamber, dynamic fluid flow, fracture formation, and elastic deformation. Despite the complexity of the governing equations we observe that the lengthening is well explained by a simple model $a(t) = c_1 \log(1+t/c_2)$, where $a$ is the dike length, $t$ is time, and $c_1$ and $c_2$ are constants. We compare the model to seismic data from 8 dikes in Iceland and Ethiopia and, in spite of the assumption of plane strain, we find good agreement between the data and the model. In addition, we derive an approximate model for the depressurization of the chamber with the dike length. These models may help forecast the growth of lateral dikes and magma chamber depressurization.
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EliasHeimisson: New preprint for the volcano folks 🌋 We study how some dikes lengthen with time using fully coupled simulations and find out that it is probably logarithmic! 👇👇👇 Logarithmic growth of dikes from a depressurizing magma chamber https://t.co/VPgf5oFFwg via @EarthArXiv https://t.co/VIJwuM4YZK
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1.997 Mikeys
#3. Directionality of ambient noise in the Mississippi embayment
Chunyu Liu, Khurram Aslam, Charles A. Langston
Cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise from 277 broadband stations within the Mississippi embayment (ME) with at least 1-month of recording time between 1990 and 2018 are used to estimate source locations of primary and secondary microseisms. We investigate source locations by analyzing the azimuthal distribution of the signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) and positive/negative amplitude differences. We use 84 stations with continuous 1-year recordings to explore seasonal variations of SNRs and amplitude differences. We also investigate the seasonal ambient noise ground motions using 2D frequency-wavenumber analysis of a 50-station array composed of the Northern Embayment Lithosphere Experiment. We observe that (1) two major azimuths can be identified in the azimuthal distribution of SNRs and amplitude difference. We also observe two minor azimuths in the seasonal variation of SNRs, amplitude difference, and 2D FK power spectra. Monthly 2D FK power spectra reveal that two energy sources are active in northern hemisphere winter and...
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Total Words: 11364
Unqiue Words: 2823

1.993 Mikeys
#4. Coherent streamflow variability in Monsoon Asia over the past eight centuries---links to oceanic drivers
Nguyen Tan Thai Hung, Sean W.D. Turner, Brendan Martin Buckley, Stefano Galelli
The Monsoon Asia region is home to ten of the world’s biggest rivers, supporting the lives of 1.7 billion people who rely on streamflow for water, energy, and food. Yet, a synoptic understanding of multi-centennial streamflow variability for this region is lacking. Here we produce the first large scale streamflow reconstruction over Monsoon Asia (63 stations in 16 countries), using a novel climate-informed dynamic algorithm that is skillful over 92% of the gauging stations. We show that streamflow in Monsoon Asia is spatially coherent, owing to common drivers from the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans that exert their greatest influence over the Mekong and Chao Phraya basins. This work increases our understanding of streamflow variability over Monsoon Asia. We suggest that future water management in the region should be coordinated between basins, taking into account the states of the oceans.
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1.987 Mikeys
#5. The Fate of Carbon during Earth’s Core–Mantle Differentiation
Ingrid Blanchard, Eleanor Jennings, Ian A. Franchi, Xuchao Zhao, Sylvain Petitgirard, Nobuyoshi Miyajima, Seth Jacobson, Dave Rubie
Carbon is an essential element for the existence and evolution of life on Earth, constitutes up to 50% of dry biomass, and is likely a requirement for all life in the universe. Its high abundance in Earth’s crust and mantle (the Bulk Silicate Earth, BSE) is surprising because carbon is strongly siderophile (metal-loving) and should have segregated almost completely into Earth’s core during accretion. Estimates of the concentration of carbon in the mantle lie mostly in the range of 80–120 ppm, which is much higher than expected based on simple models of core–mantle differentiation. Here we show through experiments at 49–71 GPa and 3600–4000 K that carbon is significantly less siderophile at such conditions than at the low pressures (≤ 3 GPa) of previous studies. We derive a new parameterization of the pressure–temperature dependence of the metal–silicate partitioning of carbon and apply this in a state-of-the-art model of planet formation and differentiation that is based on astrophysical N-body accretion simulations. Results show...
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1.968 Mikeys
#6. Ophiolite carbonation: Constraints from listvenite core BT1B, Oman Drilling Project
Andreas Beinlich, Oliver Plümper, Esmée Boter, Inigo A. Müller, Fatma Kourim, Martin Ziegler, Yumiko Harigane, Romain Lafay, Peter B. Kelemen
The widespread occurrence of the quartz–carbonate alteration assemblage (listvenite) in ophiolites indicates that ultramafic rock represents an effective sink for dissolved CO2. However, the understanding of the carbonation mechanisms is almost exclusively based on surface samples, which adds significant uncertainty to the interpretation of fossil hydrothermal systems. Here we present novel insight into the reaction textures and mechanisms of ultramafic rock carbonation obtained from the 300 m deep BT1B drill hole, ICDP Oman Drilling Project. Hole BT1B recovered continuous drill core intersecting surface alluvium, 200 meters of altered ultramafic rock comprising serpentinite and listvenite, and 100 meters of the underlying metamorphic sole. The ultramafic part of BT1B is dominated by listvenite with only two thin intercalated serpentinite bands at 90 m and 180 m depth. Microstructural analyses indicate an evolution beginning with non-equilibrium growth of spheroidal carbonate composed of interlayered magnesite and dolomite in the...
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1.962 Mikeys
#7. Deep learning to infer eddy heat fluxes from sea surface height patterns of mesoscale turbulence
Tom George, Georgy Manucharyan, Andrew Thompson
Oceans play a major role in Earth's climate by storing and transporting heat via turbulent currents called mesoscale eddies. However, direct monitoring of eddy-driven heat fluxes is currently impossible because it requires simultaneous surface and subsurface observations of velocity and heat content, while only surface properties of mesoscale eddies can be comprehensively measured by satellites in the form of sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. Nonetheless, surface and subsurface expressions of eddies are dynamically linked, suggesting that surface observations may contain at least partial information about subsurface flows and thus heat transport. Here we used deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to demonstrate that SSH expressions of mesoscale turbulence contain sufficient information to predict about 64\% of eddy heat flux variance, with CNNs significantly outperforming other conventional data-driven techniques. Our results suggest that deep CNNs could provide an effective pathway towards an operational monitoring of eddy...
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