Top 2 Eartharxiv Papers Today
in Medicine And Health Sciences
As global warming increases temperatures worldwide, cities are experiencing even greater temperatures due to the urban heat island effect, which is the trapping of heat in “gray” urban infrastructure. Cities are combatting this with green infrastructure (GI) initiatives, such as the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) GI initiative in New York City. However, these programs are often implemented based on convenience for local governments, rather than the heat vulnerability of different areas. This study evaluated the DEP GI program by creating a heat vulnerability index (HVI) that incorporates risk factors for New York City’s 188 Census neighborhoods, a much more accurate model than that of existing case studies, which use United Hospital Fund neighborhoods. Additionally, the number of current GI sites in each neighborhood was counted to extrapolate a control HVI. By comparing the created and control HVI values for each neighborhood, the effectiveness of the program and the number of GI sites needed in each neighborhood...
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Steven John Rowland,
Paul Andrew Sutton,
In alcoholic solutions (tinctures), the tricyclic triterpenoid alcohol, ambrein, which is usually the main ingredient of the natural product ambergris, undergoes photo-oxidation to a number of odorous products. Such tinctures are valuable in perfumery.
Similar reactions are thought to occur in the marine environment, when flotsam and jetsam ambergris are exposed to sunlight. However, previous simulations of this process used artificial photosensitisers and did not include dark controls.
We therefore conducted experiments in which ambrein in seawater (~1666 mg L-1) containing a photosensitiser, forms of which are found naturally in ambergris (5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphine copper (II); 1% of ambrein w/w), was exposed to simulated natural sunlight for experimental periods of up to 6 h (approximately equivalent to 48 h natural exposure, Florida midday, mid-summer sunlight). Dark controls were treated in the same manner, without exposure to light.
After 6 h exposure to light, total reaction products detectable by...
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