Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Zoology


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#1. Electron microscopic analysis of the exo-skeleton of hadal zone amphipod Hirondellea gigas
Hideki Kobayashi, Hirokazu Shimoshige, Yoshikata Nakajima, Wataru Arai, Hideto Katami
The amphipod Hirondellea gigas inhabits the deepest regions of the oceans in extra high-pressure. However, the mechanisms by which they adapt to their high-pressure environments remain unknown. In this study, we investigated elements of the exoskeleton of H. gigas captured from the deepest points of the Mariana Trench. The H. gigas exoskeleton contained aluminum, as well as a major amount of calcium carbonate. Unlike other accumulated metals, aluminum was distributed on the surface of exoskeletons. To investigate how H. gigas obtains aluminum, we conducted a metabolome analysis and found that gluconic acid/gluconolactone was capable of extracting metals from the sediment under the habitat conditions of H. gigas. The extracted aluminum ions are transformed into the gel state of aluminum hydroxide in alkaline seawater, and this gel covers the body to protect the amphipod. The aluminum gel would be one of good materials to adapt to such high-pressure environment.
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 10760
Unqiue Words: 3338

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#2. Reducing Aedes albopictus breeding sites through education: a study in urban area
Angeliki Stefopoulou, George Balatsos, Angeliki Petraki, Shannon L. LaDeau, Dimitrios Papachristos, Antonis Michaelakis
Aedes albopictus tends to proliferate in small, often man-made bodies of water, largely present in urban private areas. For this reason, education and community participation are considered crucial for source reduction and mosquito control. In the current study, we tried to relate for the first time in Greece, the effectiveness of resident education in an urban area with the number of breeding sites based on previous KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) studies. Our study examines the relationship between mosquito breeding sources and socioeconomic or demographic characteristics of different households in a Greek municipality and evaluates efficacy of resident education. The results revealed that only a minority of residents knew where mosquitoes breed (18.6%) and only 46% felt that residents had any responsibility for managing breeding habitat. Our findings strongly suggest that only the presence of scientific staff inspecting possible habitats in their properties, could be enough to stimulate practices towards source...
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 6780
Unqiue Words: 2178

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#3. Latitudinal Variation in Life History Reveals a Reproductive Disadvantage in the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
Daniel F Hughes, Walter E Meshaka, Carl S Lieb, Joseph HK Pechmann
Geographically widespread species that occupy many thermal environments provide testable models for understanding the evolution of life-history responses to latitude, yet studies that draw range-wide conclusions using descriptive data from populations in the core of a species distribution can overlook meaningful inter-population variation. The phrynosomatid lizard Phrynosoma cornutum spans an extensive latitudinal distribution in North America and has been well-studied in connection with life-history evolution, yet populations occupying the most northern and coldest areas within its range were absent from previous examinations. We tested genus-wide models and challenged species-specific findings on the evolution of the life-history strategy for P. cornutum using populations at the northern edge of its geographic range and comparative material from farther south. Multivariate analyses revealed that egg dimensions decreased with clutch size, suggestive of a previously unrecognized tradeoff between egg size and egg number in this...
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biorxivpreprint: Latitudinal Variation in Life History Reveals a Reproductive Disadvantage in the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) https://t.co/O94klY67nx #bioRxiv
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 9172
Unqiue Words: 2986

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#4. Life on the margin: rainwater tanks facilitate overwintering of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in a sub-tropical climate.
Brendan J Trewin, Jonathan M Darbro, Myron P Zalucki, Cassie C Jansen, Nancy A Schellhorn, Gregor J Devine
A key determinant of insect persistence in marginal habitats is the ability to tolerate environmental extremes such as temperature. Aedes aegypti is highly invasive and little is known about the physiological sensitivity of the species to fluctuating temperature regimes at the lower critical threshold. This has implications that limit establishment and persistence of the species in sub-optimal regions. Daily winter temperatures were measured in common Australian larval habitats, replicated in environmental chambers, and used to investigate the effect of fluctuating temperatures on the development and survival of tropical and subtropical strains of Australian Ae. aegypti. Development was slow for all treatments but both strains were able to complete development to the adult stage, suggesting previous models underestimate the potential for the species to persist in eastern Australia. Results suggested that thermal buffering in large volume habitats, and water that persists for greater than 32 days, will facilitate completion of the...
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Sample Sizes : [60]
Authors: 6
Total Words: 8023
Unqiue Words: 2901

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#5. A feeding aggregation of Omura's whale Balaenoptera omurai off Nosy Be, Mozambique Channel
Pierre Laboute, Philippe Borsa
A feeding aggregation of Omura's whales Balaenoptera omurai was documented off Nosy Be Island at the northeastern entrance of Mozambique Channel in November 1994. Underwater photographs of live individuals illustrated sub-surface skimming as main feeding behaviour, with small crustaceans, small jellyfish, and other gelatinous micronecton identified as prey. A precise description of the whales' pigmentation patterns completes previous descriptions from the recent literature.
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 1730
Unqiue Words: 814

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#6. Heterochrony of puberty in the European Badger (Meles meles) can be explained by growth rate and group-size: Evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes
Nadine Adrianna Sugianto, Chris Newman, David Whyte Macdonald, Christina Dagmar Buesching
Puberty is a key stage in mammalian ontogeny, involving endocrinological, physiological and behavioural changes, moderated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Thus, not all individuals within one population achieve sexual maturity simultaneously. Here, using the European badger (Meles meles) as a model, we describe male testosterone and female oestrone profiles (using Enzyme-immunoassays) from first capture (3 months, post-weaning) until 28 months (attaining sexual maturity and final body size), along with metrics of somatic growth, scent gland development and maturation of external reproductive organs as well as intra-specific competition. In both sexes, endocrinological puberty commenced at ca. 11 months. Thereafter, cub hormone levels followed adult seasonal hormone patterns but at lower levels, with the majority of cubs reaching sexual maturity during their second mating season (22-28 months). Interestingly, there was evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes among male cubs (less evident in females), with early developers...
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KingQingis: Heterochrony of puberty in the European Badger (Meles meles) can be explained by growth rate and group-size: Evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes https://t.co/urFSfkdiBF
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 11426
Unqiue Words: 4154

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#7. ALIEN SPECIES OF FISH IN THE LITTORAL OF VOLGA AND KAMA RESERVOIRS (RESULTS OF COMPLEX EXPEDITIONS OF IBIW RAS IN 2005-2017)
Dmitry P Karabanov, Dmitry D Pavlov, Mikhail I Bazarov, Elena A Borovikova, Yury V Gerasimov, Yulia V Kodukhova, Alexey A Smirnov, Igor A Stolbunov
The paper provides information on alien species of fish caught in the coastal waters of the Volga and Kama river reservoirs. The material was collected during complex ship expeditions of the IBIW RAS in 2005-2017. We have identified habitats and estimated the relative abundance of mass alien species of the Volga-Kama region.
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 10745
Unqiue Words: 3442

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#8. Sustained hovering, head stabilization and vision through the water surface in the Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis).
Gadi Katzir, Dotan Berman, Moshe Nathan, Daniel Weihs
Pied kingfishers (Ceryle rudis) capture fish by plunge diving from hovering that may last several minutes. Hovering is the most energy-consuming mode of flight and depends on active wing flapping and facing headwind. The power for hovering is mass dependent increasing as the cube of the size, while aerodynamic forces increase only quadratically with size. Consequently, birds above a certain body mass can hover only with headwind and for very short durations. Hummingbirds are referred to as the only birds capable of hovering without wind (sustained hovering) due to their small size (ca. 2-20 gr), high wing-beat frequency and unique anatomy. We studied the hovering characteristics of pied kingfishers in relation to wind and sun orientation, in 139 hovers. Furthermore, plunge diving necessitates the coping with the visual effects of light at the air/water interface. The kingfishers oriented their body axis towards the wind more than towards the sun. Hovering in little or no wind was common. With increased wind speed (a) orientation...
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LifeSciHealthIL: Sustained hovering, head stabilization and vision through the water surface in the Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis). https://t.co/nHkqJ10zrp #israel #lifesciences #technion
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 6359
Unqiue Words: 2314

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#9. Large Anoura (Chiroptera:Glossophaginae) taxonomy, taxonomic status of Anoura carishina, and implications for the distribution of Anoura latidens in Colombia.
Camilo Andres Calderon-Acevedo, Miguel Eduardo Rodriguez-Posada, Nathan Muchhala
The Anoura geoffroyi species complex is composed of 3 large species: A. geoffroyi, A. peruana, and A. carishina. Several inconsistencies arise from the description of A. carishina, and given the lack of a comparison with the dentition and external characters of A. latidens, here we compare the taxonomic characters of these species. To understand the position of A. carishina in the morphospace occupied by large Anoura, we conducted a Principal Component Analysis on 12 craniodental and 11 external variables. We complement our results with further analysis of traits thought to be diagnostic for these species, including 1) an elliptical Fourier transformation analysis of the shape of the third upper premolar (P4), 2) a comparison of the area of the second (P3) and third (P4) upper premolars, and 3) a comparison of maxillary toothrow angles. We find that A. carishina is morphologically indistinguishable from A. latidens, and that there is broad overlap in morphology between A. latidens and A. geoffroyi. However several characters found...
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Sample Sizes : [5, 5, 75, 40, 4, 5, 34, 66]
Authors: 3
Total Words: 8235
Unqiue Words: 2776

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#10. Opening the Pandora Box: DNA-barcoding evidence limitations of morphology to identify Spanish mosquitoes
Sofia Delgado-Serra, Miriam Viader, Ignacio Ruiz Arrondo, Miguel Angel Miranda, Carlos Barcelo, Ruben Bueno-Mari, Luis Hernandez-Triana, Marga Miquel, Claudia Paredes-Esquivel
Cryptic speciation is frequent in the medically important mosquitoes. While most findings have been reported in tropical regions, it is an unexplored topic in countries where mosquito-borne diseases are not endemic, like Spain. The occurrence of recent outbreaks in Europe has increased the awareness on the native and invasive mosquito fauna present in the continent. Therefore, the central question of this study is whether the typological approach is sufficient to identify Spanish mosquitoes. To address this problem, we confronted the results of the morphological identification of 62 adult specimens collected from four different regions of Spain (La Rioja, Navarra, Castellon and the Island of Majorca) with the results obtained through DNA-barcoding. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene region and compared this with the results of four species delimitation algorithms (ABGD initial partition, ABGD P=0.46%, bPTP and TCS). We report strong evidence for cryptic speciation in Anopheles algeriensis and Aedes...
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Authors: 9
Total Words: 14751
Unqiue Words: 2654

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