Top 7 Biorxiv Papers Today in Plant Biology


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#1. Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis
Caitlin N. Jacques, Anna K. Hulbert, Shelby Westenskow, Michael M. Neff
Background:  Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct  Arabidopsis thaliana  seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics.  Results:  Phytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the  sob3-4 esc-8  double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the  sob3-4 esc-8  subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between  sob3-4 esc-8  seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was...
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biorxivpreprint: Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis https://t.co/53fbQ0bgxZ #bioRxiv
biorxiv_plants: Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis https://t.co/L9C0yeD227 #biorxiv_plants
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Authors: 4
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#2. Vacuolar sucrose homeostasis is critical for development, seed properties and survival of dark phases of Arabidopsis
Duc Phuong Vu, Cristina Martins Rodrigues, Benjamin Jung, Garvin Meissner, Patrick A.W. Klemens, Daniela Luise Holtgräwe, Lisa Fürtauer, Thomas Nägele, Petra Nieberl, Benjamin Pommerrenig, H. Ekkehard Neuhaus
Although we know that most of the cellular sucrose is present in the cytosol and vacuole, our knowledge on the impact of this sucrose compartmentation on plant properties is still fragmentary. Here we attempted to alter the intracellular sucrose compartmentation of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells by either, overexpression of the vacuolar sucrose loader Bv TST2.1 or by generation of mutants with decreased vacuolar invertase activity ( amiR vi1-2 ). Surprisingly, Bv TST2.1 overexpression led to increased monosaccharide levels in leaves, while sucrose remained constant. Latter observation allows the conclusion, that vacuolar invertase activity in mesophyll vacuoles exceeds sucrose uptake in Arabidopsis, which gained independent support by analyses on tobacco leaves transiently overexpressing Bv TST2.1 and the invertase inhibitor Nb VIF. However, we observed strongly increased sucrose levels in leaf extracts from independent amiR vi1-2 lines and non aqueous fractionations confirmed that sucrose accumulation in corresponding vacuoles. amiR...
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biorxivpreprint: Vacuolar sucrose homeostasis is critical for development, seed properties and survival of dark phases of Arabidopsis https://t.co/aPHXtGrjgS #bioRxiv
biorxiv_plants: Vacuolar sucrose homeostasis is critical for development, seed properties and survival of dark phases of Arabidopsis https://t.co/RtjjMZaltW #biorxiv_plants
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#3. CAM emerges in a leaf metabolic model under water-saving constraints in different environments
Nadine Toepfer, Thomas Braam, Sanu Shameer, R. George Ratcliffe, Lee J. Sweetlove
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) evolved in arid environments as a water-saving alternative to C3 photosynthesis. There is great interest in engineering more drought-resistant crop species by introducing CAM into C3 plants. However, one of the open questions is whether full CAM or alternative water-saving flux modes would be more productive in the environments typically experienced by C3 crops. To study the effect of temperature and relative humidity on plant metabolism we coupled a time-resolved diel model of leaf metabolism to an environment-dependent gas-exchange model. This model allowed us to study the emergence of CAM or CAM-like behaviour as a result of a trade-off between leaf productivity and water-saving. We show that vacuolar storage capacity in the leaf is a major determinant of the extent of CAM and shapes the occurrence of phase II and IV of the CAM cycle. Moreover, the model allows us to study alternative flux routes and we identify mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and an...
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biorxivpreprint: CAM emerges in a leaf metabolic model under water-saving constraints in different environments https://t.co/nbX3KMVdQM #bioRxiv
biorxiv_plants: CAM emerges in a leaf metabolic model under water-saving constraints in different environments https://t.co/88iPZud2CD #biorxiv_plants
botanyone: RT @biorxiv_plants: CAM emerges in a leaf metabolic model under water-saving constraints in different environments https://t.co/88iPZud2CD…
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 11621
Unqiue Words: 3396

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#4. Barley shoot biomass responds strongly to N:P stoichiometry and intraspecific competition, whereas roots only alter their foraging
Amit Kumar, Richard van Duijnen, Benjamin M Delory, Ruediger Reichel, Nicolas Brueggemann, Vicky M Temperton
Background and Aims: Plants respond to various environmental stimuli, and root systems are highly responsive to the availability and distribution of nutrients in the soil. Root system responses to the limitation of either nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) are well documented, but how the early root system responds to (co-) limitation of one (N or P) or both (N and P) in a stoichiometric framework is not well known despite its relevance in agriculture. In addition, how plant-plant competition (here intra-specific) alters plant responses to N:P stoichiometry is understudied. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of N:P stoichiometry and competition on root system responses and overall plant performance. Methods: Plants (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown in rhizoboxes for 24 days in the presence or absence of competition (three vs. one plant per rhizobox), and fertilized with different combinations of N:P (low N+low P, low N+high P, high N+low P, and high N+high P). Key Results: Shoot biomass was highest when both N and P were...
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biorxivpreprint: Barley shoot biomass responds strongly to N:P stoichiometry and intraspecific competition, whereas roots only alter their foraging https://t.co/wZvj5k8Dr4 #bioRxiv
biorxiv_plants: Barley shoot biomass responds strongly to N:P stoichiometry and intraspecific competition, whereas roots only alter their foraging https://t.co/YHWwnOvbHe #biorxiv_plants
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 9759
Unqiue Words: 2562

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#5. The photoreceptor UVR8 mediates the perception of both UV-B and UV-A wavelengths up to 350 nm of sunlight with responsivity moderated by cryptochromes
Neha Rai, Andrew O'Hara, Daniel Farkas, Omid Safronov, Khuanpiroon Ratanasopa, Fang Wang, Anders Lindfors, Gareth Jenkins, Tarja Lehto, Jarkko Salojarvi, Mikael Brosche, Ake Strid, Pedro Aphalo, Luis Orlando Morales Suarez
The photoreceptors UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and CRYPTOCHROMES 1 and 2 (CRYs) play major roles in the perception of UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA/blue radiation (315-500 nm), respectively. However, it is poorly understood how they function in sunlight. The roles of UVR8 and CRYs were assessed in a factorial experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and photoreceptor mutants exposed to sunlight for 6 h or 12 h under five types of filters with cut-offs in UV and blue-light regions. Transcriptome-wide responses triggered by UVB and UVA wavelengths shorter than 350 nm (UVAsw) required UVR8 whereas those induced by blue and UVA wavelengths longer than 350 nm (UVAlw) required CRYs. UVR8 modulated gene expression in response to blue light while lack of CRYs drastically enhanced gene expression in response to UVB and UVAsw. These results agree with our estimates of photons absorbed by these photoreceptors in sunlight and with in vitro monomerization of UVR8 by wavelengths up to 335 nm. Motif enrichment analysis predicted complex...
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Authors: 14
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#6. RdDM pathway is required for Tobamovirus-induced symptomatology production
Melisa Leone, Diego Zavallo, Andrea Laura Venturuzzi, Sebastian Asurmendi
Small RNAs (sRNA) are important molecules for gene regulation in plants and play an essential role in plant-pathogen interactions. Researchers have evaluated the relationship between viral infections as well as the endogenous accumulation of sRNAs and the transcriptional changes associated with the production of symptoms, little is known about a possible direct role of epigenetics, mediated by 24-nt sRNAs, in the induction of these symptoms. With the use of different RNA directed DNA methylation pathway mutants and triple demethylase mutants, here we demonstrate that the disruption of RdDM pathway during viral infection produced alterations in the plant transcriptomic changes (because of the infection) and in symptomatology. This study represents the initial step in exposing that DNA methylation directed by endogenous sRNAs has an important role, uncoupled to defense, in the production of symptoms associated with plant-virus interactions.
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TJesse62: RT @biorxiv_plants: RdDM pathway is required for Tobamovirus-induced symptomatology production https://t.co/nz3qMRYZEV #biorxiv_plants
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#7. Ancient BED-domain-containing immune receptor from wild barley confers widely effective resistance to leaf rust
Chunhong Chen, Bethany Clark, Matthew J Martin, Oadi N Matny, Brian J Steffenson, Jerome D Franckowiak, Martin Mascher, Davinder Singh, Dragan Perovic, Terese Richardson, Sambasivam Periyannan, Evans S Lagudah, Robert Park, Peter M Dracatos
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei is a devastating fungal disease affecting barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) production globally. Race-specific resistance (R) genes have been deployed widely; however, their durability is often compromised due to the rapid emergence of virulent P. hordei races, prompting the search for new sources of broad-spectrum resistance. Here we report on the cloning of Rph15, a broadly effective resistance gene derived from the wild progenitor Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum. We demonstrate using introgression mapping, mutation and complementation that Rph15 encodes a coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein with an integrated Zinc-finger BED (ZF-BED) domain. The allelic variation at the Rph15 locus was assessed using barley exome capture data that traced its origin to the western region of the Fertile Crescent bordering Jordan and Israel. To unravel the genetic relationship of two other leaf rust resistance genes (Rph14 and Rph16) mapped at similar locus on chromosome 2H,...
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