Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Physiology


2.019 Mikeys
#1. Extraordinary Fast-Twitch Fiber Abundance Elite Weightlifters
Nathan Serrano, Lauren M Colenso-Semple, Kara K Lazauskas, Jeremy W Siu, James R Bagley, Robert G Lockie, Pablo B Costa, Andrew J Galpin
Human skeletal muscle fibers exist across a continuum of slow → fast-twitch. The amount of each fiber type (FT) influences muscle performance but remains largely unexplored in elite athletes, particularly from strength/power sports. To address this nescience, vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were performed on World/Olympic (female, n=6, “WCF”) and National-caliber (female, n=9, “NCF”; and male, n=6, “NCM”) American weightlifters. Participant accolades included 3 Olympic Games, 19 World Championships, 25 National records, and >170 National/International medals. Samples were analyzed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) content via SDS-PAGE using two distinct techniques: single fiber (SF) distribution (%) and homogenate (HG) composition. These athletes displayed the highest MHC IIa concentrations ever reported in healthy VL (23±9% I, 5±3% I/IIa, 67±13% IIa, and 6±10% IIa/IIx), with WCF expressing a notable 71±17% (NCF=67±8%, NCM=63±16%). The heavyweights accounted for 91% of the MHC IIa/IIx fibers. When compared to SF, HG overestimated MHC I...
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biorxivpreprint: Extraordinary Fast-Twitch Fiber Abundance Elite Weightlifters https://t.co/9Xl4no1Hjo #bioRxiv
drcodyhaun: Fascinating work from ⁦@DrAndyGalpin⁩ and team! Extraordinary Fast-Twitch Fiber Abundance Elite Weightlifters | bioRxiv https://t.co/JwkjENRntA
Jozo_Grgic: Extraordinary Fast-Twitch Fiber Abundance Elite Weightlifters "The extreme fast-twitch abundance partially explains how elite weightlifters generate high forces in rapid time-frames." https://t.co/igYtqpmZvB
biorxiv_physio: Extraordinary Fast-Twitch Fiber Abundance Elite Weightlifters https://t.co/isWMh9haI4 #biorxiv_physio
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Sample Sizes : [6, 9, 6]
Authors: 8
Total Words: 7046
Unqiue Words: 2685

2.007 Mikeys
#2. Amino Acids Changes and Muscle Damage During the 400 km Ultra Trail Gobi Race
Meng Li, Yao Wu, Guangyuan Huang, Song Chen, Shengting Li, Jun Cao, Xiao Ma, Yutao Du
Current researches demonstrated that completing the Ultra Trail Gobi (UTG) could lead to severe muscle damage. Our study was designed to analysis the muscle damage and amino acid changes reacted to a 400 km ultra-endurance race in experienced runners. Peripheral blood samples from 16 male athletes (mean age 40.3 ± 7.0 years, mean finish time 121.2 ± 21.8 hours), taken 48 h before and immediately after completing the Ultra Trail Gobi Race (UTG), were analyzed for 39 amino acids, 15 steroid hormones and 4 muscle damage factors. In all participants, the 4 biomarkers for muscle damage, i.e., creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased significantly after the race, whose mean post-race values were 13.7-, 7.3-, 4.7- and 1.5-fold higher than the pre-race values, respectively. 5 amino acids, i.e., alanine, valine, proline, ornithine and citrulline showed significant decrease, whose mean values decreased by 40.4 ± 18.7%, 38.9 ± 9.3%, 48.1 ± 15.2%, 44.8 ±...
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biorxivpreprint: Amino Acids Changes and Muscle Damage During the 400 km Ultra Trail Gobi Race https://t.co/cjCJjpzNBA #bioRxiv
biorxiv_physio: Amino Acids Changes and Muscle Damage During the 400 km Ultra Trail Gobi Race https://t.co/1H731T6AI5 #biorxiv_physio
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Sample Sizes : [6, 10]
Authors: 8
Total Words: 6358
Unqiue Words: 2205

1.998 Mikeys
#3. FishResp: R Package and GUI Application for Analysis of Aquatic Respirometry Data
Sergey Morozov, R.J. Scott McCairns, Juha Merilä
Intermittent-flow respirometry is widely used to measure oxygen uptake rates and subsequently estimate aerobic metabolic rates of aquatic animals. However, the lack of a standard quality-control software to detect technical problems represents a potential impediment to comparisons across studies. Here, we introduce FishResp, a versatile R package and its graphical implementation for quality-control and filtering of raw respirometry data. Our goal is to provide a straightforward, cross-platform and free software to help improve the quality and comparability of metabolic rate estimates for reducing methodological fragmentation in the field of aquatic respirometry. FishResp accepts data from various respirometry systems, allows users to detect potential mechanical problems which can occur during oxygen uptake measurements (e.g. chamber leaking, poor water circulation), and offers six options to correct raw data for microbial oxygen consumption. The software performs filtering of raw data based on user criteria, and produces accurate...
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 3
Total Words: 8205
Unqiue Words: 3044

1.997 Mikeys
#4. The Effect of Oral Tactile Sensitivity on Texture Perception and Mastication Behavior in Humans
Grace E Shupe, Arran Wilson, Curtis R Luckett
Mastication behavior is a notable source of interindividual variation in texture perception and could be linked to oral sensitivity. As oral sensitivity declines so does the amount of tactile feedback relayed to the brain, resulting in less effective manipulation or food and a reduced ability to discriminate differences. To address these hypotheses, we measured masticatory behavior and related this to texture discrimination and oral sensitivity. The study was performed on 41 participants in two groups, with high (n = 20) or low (n=21) sensitivity. Oral sensitivity was measured using a battery of tests that included: oral stereognosis, lingual tactile acuity, and bite force sensitivity. Sensitivity to texture changes was measured using a series of triangle tests with confectionaries of different hardness, with masticatory patterns and behaviors being video recorded and analyzed using jaw tracking software. Overall, there was no significant difference between high and low sensitivity participants and their ability to distinguish...
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Sample Sizes : [21, 10, 10, 12]
Authors: 3
Total Words: 7181
Unqiue Words: 2078

1.996 Mikeys
#5. Ischemic Preconditioning and Left Ventricular Dysfunction: A Novel Mechanism & Model for Pulseless Electrical Activity
Kaustubha D Patil, Richard S Tunin, Sarah J Fink, Susumu Tao, Henry R Halperin
Background Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) is a very common rhythm in cardiac arrest and survival is ≈ 5%. Population data suggest coronary ischemia significantly contributes to PEA, but the mechanism is unknown. Objectives We hypothesize ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the setting of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can convert ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) into ischemia-induced PEA. Methods Using percutaneous coronary interventions in anesthetized swine, we studied the effect of IPC prior to ischemia on arrhythmic burden in normal animals and in animals with LV dysfunction. IPC protocol: four cycles of three minutes of coronary occlusion followed by seven minutes of reperfusion. Chronic LV dysfunction protocol: two serial infarcts in two coronary territories, separated by one week of recovery. Results In normal animals, IPC prior to ischemia significantly reduced VF incidence (2/8 IPC vs. 7/8 control). In IPC animals with VF, the time to VF was significantly delayed (37.2 ± 7.3 min vs. 20.7 ± 4.9 min,...
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Sample Sizes : [8, 8, 8, 4, 6, 8, 8, 8, 4, 6, 12]
Authors: 5
Total Words: 8239
Unqiue Words: 2762

0.0 Mikeys
#6. Oral iron exacerbates colitis and influences the intestinal microbiome
Awad Mahalhal, Jonathan M Williams, Sophie Johnson, Nicholas Ellaby, Carrie A Duckworth, Michael D Burkitt, Xuan Liu, Georgina L Hold, Barry J Campbell, D. Mark Pritchard Pritchard, Chris S Probert
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with anaemia and oral iron replacement to correct this can be problematic, intensifying inflammation and tissue damage. The intestinal microbiota also plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and iron supplementation likely influences gut bacterial diversity in patients with IBD. Here, we assessed the impact of dietary iron, using chow diets containing either 100, 200 or 400 ppm, fed ad libitum to adult female C57BL/6 mice in the presence or absence of colitis induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), on (i) clinical and histological severity of acute DSS-induced colitis, and (ii) faecal microbial diversity, as assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA. Increasing or decreasing dietary iron concentration from the standard 200 ppm exacerbated both clinical and histological severity of DSS-induced colitis. DSS-treated mice provided only half the standard levels of iron ad libitum (i.e. chow containing 100 ppm iron) lost more body weight than those receiving double the...
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 11
Total Words: 8946
Unqiue Words: 3102

0.0 Mikeys
#7. Exogenous DCPTA ameliorates the soil drought effect on nitrogen metabolism in maize during the pre-female inflorescence emergence stage
Tenglong Xie, Wanrong Gu, Liguo Zhang, Congfeng Li, Wenhua Li, Shi Wei
2-(3,4-Dichlorophenoxy) triethylamine (DCPTA) regulates many aspects of plant development; however, its effects on soil drought tolerance are unknown. We pre-treated maize (Zea mays L.) by foliar application of DCPTA and subsequently exposed the plants to soil drought and rewatering conditions during the pre-female inflorescence emergence stage. Exogenous DCPTA significantly alleviated drought-induced decreases in maize yield, shoot and root relative growth rate (RGR), leaf relative water content (RLWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), and soluble protein contents, and nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activities; increases in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), the ammonium (NH4+) and free amino acid contents, and the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and protease activities. Simultaneously, exogenous DCPTA improved the...
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 6
Total Words: 12943
Unqiue Words: 3714

0.0 Mikeys
#8. Lactate production without hypoxia in skeletal muscle during electrical cycling: Crossover study of femoral venous-arterial differences in healthy volunteers
Jan Gojda, Petr Waldauf, Natália Hrušková, Barbora Blahutová, Adéla Krajčová, Petr Tůma, Kamila Řásová, František Duška
Background. Aim of the study was to compare metabolic response of leg skeletal muscle during functional electrical stimulation-driven unloaded cycling (FES) to that seen during volitional supine cycling. Methods. Fourteen healthy volunteers were exposed in random order to supine cycling, either volitional (10-25-50 W, 10 min) or FES assisted (unloaded, 10 min) in a crossover design. Whole body and leg muscle metabolism were assessed by indirect calorimetry with concomitant repeated measurements of femoral venous-arterial differences of blood gases, glucose, lactate and amino acids. Results. Unloaded FES cycling, but not volitional exercise, led to a significant increase in across-leg lactate production (from -1.1±2.1 to 5.5±7.4 mmol/min, p<0.001) and mild elevation of arterial lactate (from 1.8±0.7 to 2.5±0.8 mM). This occurred without widening of across-leg VA O2 and CO2 gaps. Femoral SvO2 difference was directly proportional to VA difference of lactate (R2= 0.60, p=0.002). Across-leg glucose uptake did not change with either...
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Sample Sizes : [5, 9]
Authors: 8
Total Words: 6814
Unqiue Words: 2884

0.0 Mikeys
#9. Intra- and inter-individual metabolic profiling highlights carnitine and lysophosphatidylcholine pathways as key molecular defects in type-2 diabetes
Klev Diamanti, Marco Cavalli, Gang Pan, Maria Joao Pereira, Chanchal Kumar, Stanko Skrtic, Manfred Grabherr, Ulf Riserus, Jan W Eriksson, Jan Komorowski, Claes Wadelius
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus is a complex metabolic disease commonly caused by insulin resistance in several tissues. We performed a matched two-dimensional metabolic screening in tissue samples from a cohort of 43 multi-organ donors. The intra-individual analysis was assessed across five key-metabolic tissues (serum, adipose tissue, liver, pancreatic islets and muscle), and the inter-individual across three different groups reflecting T2D progression. We identified 92 metabolites differing significantly between non-diabetes and T2D subjects. Carnitines were significantly higher in liver, while lysophosphatidylcholines significantly lower in muscle and serum. An investigation of the progression to overt T2D showed that deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate was significantly higher in liver of pre-diabetes samples while additional increase in T2D was insignificant. A subset of lysophosphatidylcholines were significantly lower in the muscle of pre-diabetes subjects. Overall, the analysis of this unique dataset can increase the...
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metabolomicsDB is a collection of three open-source command-line tools and an API. The tools create a meta-database of HMDB and ChEBI, while the API allows others to read the meta-database and use it on their own projects.

Repository: metabolomicsDB
User: klevdiamanti
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Authors: 11
Total Words: 8889
Unqiue Words: 3116

0.0 Mikeys
#10. NHA2 promotes cyst development in an in vitro model of polycystic kidney disease
Hari Prasad, Donna K Dang, Kalyan C Kondapalli, Niranjana Natarajan, Valeriu Cebotaru, Rajini Rao
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. The molecular pathways linking polycystins to cyst development in ADPKD are still unclear. Intracystic fluid secretion via ion transporters and channels plays a crucial role in cyst expansion in ADPKD. Unexpectedly, we observed significant and selective up-regulation of NHA2, a member of the SLC9B family of Na+/H+ exchangers that correlated with cyst size and disease severity in ADPKD patients. Using three-dimensional cultures of MDCK cells to model cystogenesis in vitro, we show that ectopic expression of NHA2 is causal to increased cyst size. Induction of PC1 in MDCK cells inhibited NHA2 expression with concordant inhibition of Ca2+ influx through store-dependent and independent pathways, whereas reciprocal activation of Ca2+ influx by a dominant negative, membrane-anchored C-terminal tail fragment of PC1 elevated NHA2. We show that NHA2 is a target of Ca2+/NFAT signaling...
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madamscientist: Polycystin-1 controls calcium channel activity of polycystin-2 &amp; regulates NHA2 expression by calcium/NFAT signaling in renal tubular cells. NHA2 increases transepithelial salt and water flux to greatly increase cyst size. Preprint: https://t.co/Dkm0AGaLTX https://t.co/Kp27ik3Bf2
dkjhaunc: RT @biorxivpreprint: NHA2 promotes cyst development in an in vitro model of polycystic kidney disease https://t.co/F6R0lFnhhr #bioRxiv
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Sample Sizes : [25, 363, 367]
Authors: 6
Total Words: 13474
Unqiue Words: 3563

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