Top 2 Biorxiv Papers Today in Pharmacology And Toxicology


2.003 Mikeys
#1. Evaluating the Role of Fish as Surrogates for Amphibians in Pesticide Ecological Risk Assessment
Scott Glaberman, Jean Kiwiet, Catherine Aubee
Ecological risk of chemicals to aquatic-phase amphibians has historically been evaluated by comparing estimated environmental concentrations in surface water to surrogate toxicity data from standard fish species. Despite their obvious similarities, there are biological disparities among fish and amphibians that could affect their exposure and response to chemicals. Given the alarming decline in amphibians in which anthropogenic pollutants play at least some role, evaluating the potential risk of chemicals to amphibians is becoming increasingly important. Here, we evaluate relative sensitivity of fish and larval aquatic-phase amphibians to 45 different pesticides using existing data for three standardized toxicity tests: (1) amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) with the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis); (2) fish short-term reproductive assay (FSTRA) with freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas); (3) fish early life stage test with P. promelas or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The advantage of this dataset over...
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biorxivpreprint: Evaluating the Role of Fish as Surrogates for Amphibians in Pesticide Ecological Risk Assessment https://t.co/hG0jRNkSIO #bioRxiv
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 8243
Unqiue Words: 2539

1.992 Mikeys
#2. Disparate effects of antibiotic-induced microbiome change and enhanced fitness in Daphnia magna
Asa Motiei, Björn Brindefalk, Martin Ogonowski, Rehab El-Shehawy, Paulina Pastuszek, Karin Ek, Birgitta Liewenborg, Klas Udekwu, Elena Gorokhova
It is a common view that an organism’s microbiota has a profound influence on host fitness; however, supporting evidence is lacking in many organisms. We manipulated the gut microbiome of Daphnia magna by chronic exposure to different concentrations of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (0.01 – 1 mg L-1), and evaluated whether this affected the animals’ fitness and antioxidant capacity. In line with our expectations, antibiotic exposure altered the microbiome in a concentration-dependent manner. However, contrary to these expectations, the reduced diversity of gut bacteria was not associated with any fitness detriment. Moreover, the growth-related parameters correlated negatively with diversity indices; and, in the daphnids exposed to the lowest ciprofloxacin concentrations, the antioxidant capacity, growth, and fecundity were even higher than in control animals. These findings suggest that ciprofloxacin exerts direct stimulatory effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia, while microbiome- mediated effects are of lesser importance....
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 9
Total Words: 10543
Unqiue Words: 3858

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