Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


2.055 Mikeys
#1. Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations
Sophie Bagur, Julie M Lefort, Marie M Lacroix, Gaetan de Lavilleon, Cyril Herry, Clara Billand, Helene Geoffroy, Karim Benchenane
Does the body play an active role in emotions? Since the original James/Cannon controversy this debate has mainly been fueled by introspective accounts of human experience. Here, we use the animal model to demonstrate a physiological mechanism for bodily feedback and its causal role in the stabilization of emotional states. We report that during fear-related freezing mice breathe at 4Hz and show, using probabilistic modelling, that optogenetic perturbation of this feedback specifically reduces freezing maintenance without impacting its initiation. This rhythm is transmitted by the olfactory bulb to the prefrontal cortex where it organizes neural firing and optogenetic probing of the circuit demonstrates frequency-specific tuning that maximizes prefrontal cortex responsivity at 4Hz, the breathing frequency during freezing. These results point to a brain-body-brain loop in which the initiation of emotional behavior engenders somatic changes which then feedback to the cortex to directly participate in sustaining emotional states.
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biorxivpreprint: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/WNu1mbHQrd #bioRxiv
biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #biorxiv_neursci
DebiecJacek: Breathing-driven 4HZ rhythm, transmitted by the olfactory bulb to the prefrontal cortex where it organizes oscillations, is critical for the maintenance but not initiation of freezing behavior in mice. https://t.co/0fRs2eJniZ
Bench_K: Probably the study I am the most proud of... "Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations" https://t.co/eOmLB5hxpw
MicTott: Breathing-driven 4 Hz prefrontal oscillations are critical for the maintenance, but not initiation, of freezing behavior. Really cool work, and beautifully written! https://t.co/IXmcA9dtd1
neuroconscience: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
hugospiers: RT @biorxivpreprint: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/WNu1mbHQrd #…
JstMathieu: https://t.co/uINbRWlv7d
CERE_Emotion: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
CERE_Emotion: RT @biorxivpreprint: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/WNu1mbHQrd #…
CNSorg: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
Umasi1981: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
Bench_K: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
NeuroSyntheSys: RT @biorxivpreprint: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/WNu1mbHQrd #…
Divorytaur: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
HiroTaiyoHamada: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Dissociation of fear initiation and maintenance by breathing-driven prefrontal oscillations https://t.co/nPmqYY8PS2 #…
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Sample Sizes : [169]
Authors: 8
Total Words: 10893
Unqiue Words: 3088

2.03 Mikeys
#2. Target-specific co-transmission of acetylcholine and GABA from a subset of cortical VIP+ interneurons
Adam J Granger, Wengang Wang, Keiramarie Robertson, Mahmoud El-Rifai, Andrea Zanello, Karina Bistrong, Arpiar Saunders, Brian Chow, Vicente Nunez, Chenghua Gu, Bernardo L Sabatini
The modulation of cortex by acetylcholine (ACh) is typically thought to originate from long-range projections arising in the basal forebrain. However, a subset of VIP interneurons express ChAT, the synthetic enzyme for ACh, and are a potential local source of cortical ACh. Which neurotransmitters these VIP/ChAT interneurons (VCINs) release is unclear, and which post-synaptic cell types these transmitters target is not known. Using quantitative molecular analysis of VCIN pre-synaptic terminals, we show expression of the molecular machinery to release both ACh and GABA, with ACh release restricted to a subset of boutons. A systematic survey of potential post-synaptic cell types shows that VCINs release GABA primarily onto other inhibitory interneuron subtypes, while ACh neurotransmission is notably sparse, with most ACh release onto layer 1 interneurons and other VCINs. Therefore, VCINs are an alternative source of cortical ACh signaling that supplement GABA-mediated disinhibition with highly targeted excitation through ACh.
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biorxivpreprint: Target-specific co-transmission of acetylcholine and GABA from a subset of cortical VIP+ interneurons https://t.co/iUiGVTbvoi #bioRxiv
biorxiv_neursci: Target-specific co-transmission of acetylcholine and GABA from a subset of cortical VIP+ interneurons https://t.co/FKLIgVdVSa #biorxiv_neursci
blsabatini: Big effort by @ajgrange and company from @SabatiniLab on cortical cholinergic VIP cells is now on biorxiv https://t.co/N5drYvlgKP
jackie_derose: 👀 Target-specific co-transmission of acetylcholine and GABA from a subset of cortical VIP+ interneurons 👇🏼👇🏼👇🏼https://t.co/kkVdiuRXIQ
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Authors: 11
Total Words: 16164
Unqiue Words: 4165

2.022 Mikeys
#3. Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits
Daniel Barson, Ali S Hamodi, Xilin Shen, Gyorgy Lur, R Todd Constable, Jessica Cardin, Michael Crair, Michael Higley
Spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity propagates across spatial scales in the mammalian cortex but technical challenges have generally precluded establishing conceptual links between the function of local circuits of neurons and brain-wide network dynamics. To solve this problem, we developed a method for simultaneous cellular-resolution two-photon calcium imaging of a local microcircuit and mesoscopic widefield calcium imaging of the entire cortical mantle in awake, behaving mice. Our method employs an orthogonal axis design whereby the mesoscopic objective is oriented downward directly above the brain and the two-photon objective is oriented horizontally, with imaging performed through a glass right angle microprism implanted in the skull. In support of this method, we introduce a suite of analysis tools for relating the activity of individual cells to distal cortical areas, as well as a viral method for robust and widespread gene delivery in the juvenile mouse brain. We use these methods to characterize the diversity of...
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gottapatchemall: pretty cool imaging setup + a new trick to get cortex wide expression from AAVs Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/BZlHHDmaPL https://t.co/GcTdd8qtZh
constable_todd: Spanning scales in the mouse - Part I. Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/XviMCXiNju
Gozzi_Ale: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/enaPC2PKRs https://t.co/m5pSiHZR4E
PromPreprint: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/eMk58Loq9j
feynman1104: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/w4WL3aq9qk
DrJKhokhar: RT @Gozzi_Ale: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/enaPC2PKRs https://t.c…
rauf_khalid: RT @Gozzi_Ale: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/enaPC2PKRs https://t.c…
mjhigley: RT @biorxivpreprint: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/afaJdAlh9U #bio…
hr072: RT @biorxivpreprint: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/afaJdAlh9U #bio…
aeRIsincOsmos: RT @biorxivpreprint: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/afaJdAlh9U #bio…
Abdelrayan2: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/ti43EJUHs7 #bio…
sskd3: RT @biorxivpreprint: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/afaJdAlh9U #bio…
yangdempe: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Simultaneous mesoscopic and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in cortical circuits https://t.co/ti43EJUHs7 #bio…
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 11195
Unqiue Words: 3194

2.016 Mikeys
#4. Long-term exposure to PFE-360 in the AAV-α-synuclein rat model: findings and implications
Michael Aagaard Andersen, Florence Sotty, Poul Henning Jensen, Lassina Badolo, Ross Jeggo, Garrick Paul Smith, Kenneth Vielsted Christensen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired motor function and several non-motor symptoms, with no available disease modifying treatment. Intracellular accumulation of pathological α-synuclein inclusions is a hallmark of idiopathic PD, whereas, dominant mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are associated with familial PD that is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that an increase in LRRK2 kinase activity is associated with the development of not only familial LRRK2 PD, but also idiopathic PD. Previous reports have shown preclinical effects of LRRK2 modulation on α-synuclein-induced neuropathology. Increased subthalamic nucleus (STN) burst firing in preclinical neurotoxin models and PD patients is hypothesized to be causally involved in the development of the motor deficit in PD. To study a potential pathophysiological relationship between α-synuclein pathology and LRRK2 kinase activity in PD, we investigated the...
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biorxivpreprint: Long-term exposure to PFE-360 in the AAV-α-synuclein rat model: findings and implications https://t.co/rSZmUG4RMd #bioRxiv
biorxiv_neursci: Long-term exposure to PFE-360 in the AAV-α-synuclein rat model: findings and implications https://t.co/9skaXJIWC8 #biorxiv_neursci
ScienceofPD: @lundbeck researchers have a manuscript on @biorxivpreprint reporting chronic LRRK2 inhibition using PFE-360 partially restores motor function in an alpha synuclein model of #Parkinsons, but effect is independent of the STN burst firing & neurodegeneration https://t.co/to6NfV4BAO https://t.co/eQIr6r4p6Y
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Sample Sizes : [23]
Authors: 7
Total Words: 9597
Unqiue Words: 3322

2.016 Mikeys
#5. Short-term fasting selectively influences impulsivity in healthy individuals
Maxine Howard, Jonathan Roiser, Sam J Gilbert, Paul W Burgess, Peter Dayan, Lucy Serpell
Previous research has shown that short-term fasting in healthy individuals (HIs) is associated with changes in risky decision-making. The current experiment was designed to examine the influence of short-term fasting in HIs on four types of impulsivity: reflection impulsivity, risky decision-making, delay aversion, and action inhibition. HIs were tested twice, once when fasted for 20 hours, and once when satiated. Participants demonstrated impaired action inhibition when fasted; committing significantly more errors of commission during a food-related Affective Shifting Task. Participants also displayed decreased reflection impulsivity when fasted, opening significantly more boxes during the Information Sampling Task (IST). There were no significant differences in performance between fasted and satiated sessions for risky decision-making or delay aversion. These findings may have implications for understanding eating disorders such as Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Although BN has been characterised as a disorder of poor impulse control,...
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biorxivpreprint: Short-term fasting selectively influences impulsivity in healthy individuals https://t.co/9A4CFO9SXv #bioRxiv
biorxiv_neursci: Short-term fasting selectively influences impulsivity in healthy individuals https://t.co/QKHc0TN0kd #biorxiv_neursci
PavelProsselkov: "...fasting can selectively influence performance on the IST (Information Sampling Task), a measure of impulsivity previously studied in BN (Bulimia Nervosa)" https://t.co/8fjUscyI5C
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 9840
Unqiue Words: 3227

2.014 Mikeys
#6. Boundary effects of expectation in human pain perception
Emily J Hird, Christiana Charalambous, Wael El-Deredy, Anthony K Jones, Deborah Talmi
Perception is the result of both expectation and sensory stimulation. This is reflected in placebo analgesia, where expecting low pain leads a painful stimulus to feel less painful. Yet it is maladaptive for a highly erroneous expectation to result in an unrealistically low pain experience. We hypothesised that in estimating the intensity of a painful stimulus which is preceded by a very discrepant expectation, the perception is influenced less by the expectation. We modelled the reported pain intensity as a function of the prediction error. We used linear mixed modelling on two independently collected pain cueing datasets, the second of which was preregistered (osf.io/5r6z7). Reported pain intensities were best explained by a quartic polynomial model of the prediction error, indicating the influence of expectations on perceived pain decreased when pain was highly discrepant to expectation, suggesting that the size of prediction error has a functional role in pain perception.
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PavelProsselkov: "...size of prediction error (PP: degree of expectation) has a functional role in pain perception" https://t.co/klOXEhbexz
supergrrl007: Welcoming Dr Emily Hird @hird1806 to Twitter, former @DNEP_UoM PhD and now a fellow @KingsIoPPN. Check out our recent ms - hopefully one step closer to a mathematical model of pain perception https://t.co/A7UjDKSn93
hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
neuroconscience: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
DrGBuckingham: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
PhilCorlett1: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
tompollak: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
daspainbrain: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Boundary effects of expectation in human pain perception https://t.co/qbj0tHSCOa #biorxiv_neursci
dimitrisbolis: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
victormverdejo: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
joaomineiro07: RT @hird1806: Towards a quantitative model of pain...the interplay of expectation and prediction error https://t.co/aZ9PPoqGJv
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 8815
Unqiue Words: 2177

2.013 Mikeys
#7. Healthy ageing reduces the precision of episodic memory retrieval
Saana Korkki, Franziska Richter, Priyanga Jeyarathnarajah, Jon Simons
Episodic memory declines with older age, but it is unresolved whether this decline reflects reduced probability of successfully retrieving information from memory, or decreased precision of the retrieved information. Here, we used continuous measures of episodic memory retrieval in combination with computational modelling of participants' retrieval errors to distinguish between these two potential accounts of age-related memory deficits. In three experiments, young and older participants encoded stimuli displays consisting of everyday objects varying along different perceptual features (e.g., location, colour and orientation) in a circular space. At test, participants recreated the features of studied objects using a continuous response dial. Across all three experiments, we observed age-related declines in the precision of episodic memory retrieval, whereas age differences in retrieval success were limited to the most challenging task condition. Reductions in mnemonic precision were evident for retrieval of both item-based and...
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js_simons: New preprint from @SaanaKorkki @F_R_Richter and Priya Jeyarathnarajah who find across 3 experiments that healthy ageing reduces the precision of episodic memory retrieval https://t.co/vWZw5ZqFXq https://t.co/iRpAKraryy
AV_SP: Note to self "Impoverished precision of memory representations as one factor contributing to age-related episodic memory loss" https://t.co/M0XidOrSir health older adults - nice paradigm
Aenoreth: RT @biorxivpreprint: Healthy ageing reduces the precision of episodic memory retrieval https://t.co/dwe8j3TUzI #bioRxiv
JohnPGrogan1: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Healthy ageing reduces the precision of episodic memory retrieval https://t.co/ahofSLJYbJ #biorxiv_neursci
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Total Words: 16498
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2.012 Mikeys
#8. Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey
Sabine Oligschläger, Ting Xu, Blazej M. Baczkowski, Marcel Falkiewicz, Arnaud Falchier, Gary Linn, Daniel S. Margulies
Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Using functional connectivity from resting-state fMRI in the human cortex, we found that the further a region is located from primary cortex, the more distant are its functional connections with other areas of the cortex. However, it remains unknown whether this relationship between cortical layout and connectivity extends to other primate species. Here, we investigated this relationship using both resting-state functional connectivity as well as gold-standard tract-tracing connectivity in the macaque monkey cortex. For both measures of connectivity, we found a gradient of connectivity distance extending between primary and frontoparietal regions. As...
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WiringTheBrain: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/7syfcObfaD - association areas gonna associate... https://t.co/1dRQyLFa6K
ParkvilleGeek: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey | bioRxiv https://t.co/RqHEAeDoKr https://t.co/brXjr0eXY2
AlGoulas: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/Xh7TeqDES9
bttyeo: RT @AlGoulas: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/Xh7TeqDES9
srikipedia: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
rei_akaishi: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
seanfw: RT @AlGoulas: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/Xh7TeqDES9
bogglerapture: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
Peter_Mc_Colgan: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
NeuroSyntheSys: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
Lingzhong_Fan: RT @AlGoulas: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/Xh7TeqDES9
tak_yamm: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
JoeSimonIV: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
7867Mercer: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
hong_seok_jun: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/pCE6CnlcpI #biorxiv_neur…
In_AnkitSingla: RT @biorxivpreprint: Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey https://t.co/NP8XUaH4qN #bioRxiv
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2.008 Mikeys
#9. Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells
Rodrigo RR Duarte, Nathaniel D. Bachtel, Marie-Caroline Cotel, Sang H. Lee, Sashika Selvackadunco, Iain A. Watson, Gary A. Hovsepian, Claire Troakes, Gerome D. Breen, Douglas F. Nixon, Robin M. Murray, Nicholas J. Bray, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Anthony C. Vernon, Timothy R. Powell, Deepak P. Srivastava
Genome-wide significant variants associated with combined risk for major psychiatric disorders on chromosome 10q24 affect the expression of the cytosolic nucleotidase II (NT5C2, cN-II) in population controls, implicating it as a psychiatric susceptibility gene. Risk alleles are associated with reduced expression of this gene in the developing and adult brain, but the resulting neurobiological risk mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we provide further evidence for the association of NT5C2 with psychiatric disorders, and use a functional genetics approach to gain a deeper understanding of the function of this risk gene in the nervous system. NT5C2 expression was significantly reduced in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and its protein predominately expressed in neurons within the adult brain. Using human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), we found that NT5C2 expression peaked at the neural progenitor state, where the encoded protein was ubiquitously distributed through the cell. NT5C2...
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s_j_newhouse: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells https://t.co/GJrlp4mPYN #b…
Joni_Coleman: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells https://t.co/GJrlp4mPYN #b…
abbiefiler: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells https://t.co/GJrlp4mPYN #b…
TisNathaniel: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells https://t.co/GJrlp4mPYN #b…
follo_India: RT @biorxivpreprint: Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells https://t.co/ogLUloeZSh #b…
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Total Words: 11267
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2.004 Mikeys
#10. Neural correlates of learning pure tones versus natural sounds in the auditory cortex
Ido Maor, Ravid Shwartz-Ziv, Libi Feigin, Yishai Elyada, Haim Sompolinsky, Adi Mizrahi
Auditory perceptual learning of pure tones causes tonotopic map expansion in the primary auditory cortex (A1), but the function this plasticity sub-serves is unclear. We developed an automated training platform called the Educage, which was used to train mice on a go/no-go auditory discrimination task to their perceptual limits, for difficult discriminations among pure tones or natural sounds. Spiking responses of excitatory and inhibitory L2/3 neurons in mouse A1 revealed learning-induced overrepresentation of the learned frequencies, in accordance with previous literature. Using a novel computational model to study auditory tuning curves we show that overrepresentation does not necessarily improve discrimination performance of the network to the learned tones. In contrast, perceptual learning of natural sounds induced sparsening of the neural response, and consequently improving discrimination of these complex sounds. The signature of plasticity in A1 highlights its central role in coding natural sounds as compared to pure tones.
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The Educage system

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Total Words: 16832
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