Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


2.021 Mikeys
#1. A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety
Qian Xiao, Xinyi Zhou, Pengfei Wei, Li Xie, Yaning Han, Bifeng Wu, Jie Wang, Aoling Cai, Fuqiang Xu, Yi Lu, Jie Tu, Liping Wang
The prevailing view is that parvalbumin (PV) interneurons play modulatory roles in emotional response through local medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs). Here, we show that PV activity within the nucleus accumbens shell (sNAc) is required for producing anxiety-related avoidance when mice are under anxiogenic situations; sNAcPV neurons exhibited high excitability in chronically stressed mice model, which generated excessive maladaptive avoidance behavior in an anxiogenic context. We also discovered a novel GABAergic projections from the anterior dorsal bed nuclei of stria terminalis (adBNST) to sNAcPV neurons; optogenetic activation of these afferent terminals in sNAc produced an anxiolytic effect via GABA transmission. Next, we further demonstrated that chronic stressors attenuated the inhibitory synaptic transmission at adBNSTGABA-sNAcPV synapses, which in turn explains the hyperexcitability of sNAcPV neurons on stressed models; therefore, activation of these GABAergic afferents in sNAc rescued the excessive avoidance behavior...
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rauf_khalid: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
FlyBottleEscape: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
bogglerapture: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
perothwell: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
BrianMathur1: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
MicTott: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
WickmanLab: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
marcpisansky: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
ATzilivaki: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
dan_ai_lama: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
Coka_Hoo: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
sudo_BreeB: RT @biorxiv_neursci: A new GABAergic projection from the BNST onto accumbal parvalbumin neurons controls anxiety https://t.co/qlGhkfud7P #…
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Sample Sizes : [9, 15, 6, 8, 7, 5, 7, 7, 4]
Authors: 12
Total Words: 16494
Unqiue Words: 4185

2.01 Mikeys
#2. Brain dynamics for confidence-weighted learning
Florent Meyniel
Learning in a changing and uncertain environment is a difficult problem. A popular solution is to predict future observations and then use surprising outcomes to update those predictions. However, humans also have a sense of confidence that characterizes the precision of their predictions. Bayesian models use this confidence to regulate learning: for a given surprise, the update is smaller when confidence is higher. We explored the human brain dynamics sub-tending such a confidence-weighting using magneto-encephalography. During our volatile probability learning task, subjects' confidence reports conformed with Bayesian inference. Several stimulus-evoked brain responses reflected surprise, and some of them were indeed further modulated by confidence. Confidence about predictions also modulated pupil-linked arousal and beta-range (15-30 Hz) oscillations, which in turn modulated specific stimulus-evoked surprise responses. Our results suggest thus that confidence about predictions modulates intrinsic properties of the brain state to...
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biorxiv_neursci: Brain dynamics for confidence-weighted learning https://t.co/2ltkVhvl8x #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Brain dynamics for confidence-weighted learning https://t.co/OzV9MzjGVZ #bioRxiv
LeightonHDuncan: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Brain dynamics for confidence-weighted learning https://t.co/2ltkVhvl8x #biorxiv_neursci
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Sample Sizes : [1000, 1000, 2000, 10000, 10000, 10000, 10000, 10000]
Authors: 1
Total Words: 14126
Unqiue Words: 4367

2.005 Mikeys
#3. 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI
Nikos Makris, R Jarrett Rushmore, Peter Wilson-Braun, George Papadimitriou, Isaac Ng, Yogesh Rathi, Fan Zhang, Lauren O'Donnell, Marek Kubicki, Ed Yeterian, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Evan Calabrese, G Allen Johnson, Ron Kikinis
The brainstem, a structure of vital importance in the mammals, is currently becoming a principal focus in cognitive, affective and clinical neuroscience. Midbrain, pontine and medullar structures are the epicenter of conduit, cranial nerve and such integrative functions as consciousness, emotional processing, pain and motivation. In this study, we parcellated the nuclear masses and the principal fiber pathways that were visible in a high resolution T2-weighted MRI dataset of 50-micron isotropic voxels of a postmortem human brainstem. Based on this analysis, we generated a detailed map of the human brainstem. To assess the validity of our maps, we compared our observations with histological maps of traditional human brainstem atlases. Moreover, we reconstructed the motor, sensory and integrative neural systems of the brainstem and rendered them in 3D representations. We anticipate the utilization of these maps by the neuroimaging community at large for applications in basic neuroscience as well as in neurology, psychiatry and...
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biorxivpreprint: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/H5SVzJwXh6 #bioRxiv
biorxiv_neursci: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/nnewwQR3M2 #biorxiv_neursci
leaddbs: RT @biorxiv_neursci: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/nnewwQR3M2 #biorxiv_neursci
Mudathir00: RT @biorxiv_neursci: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/nnewwQR3M2 #biorxiv_neursci
Lingzhong_Fan: RT @biorxiv_neursci: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/nnewwQR3M2 #biorxiv_neursci
enerphyschem: RT @biorxivpreprint: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/H5SVzJwXh6 #bioRxiv
blue2red4u: RT @biorxiv_neursci: 3D Exploration of the Brainstem in 50-micron Resolution MRI https://t.co/nnewwQR3M2 #biorxiv_neursci
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Authors: 14
Total Words: 0
Unqiue Words: 0

2.0 Mikeys
#4. Pain Stickiness in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A role for the Nucleus Accumbens
Laura E. Simons, Ke Peng, Pearl KiJoo Kim, Alyssa Lebel, Navil Sethna, Corey Kronman, David Zurakowski, David Borsook
Some individuals with chronic pain experience improvement in their pain with treatment, whereas others do not. The neurobiological reason is unclear, but an understanding of brain structure and functional patterns may provide insights into pain's responsivity to treatment. In this investigation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to determine grey matter density alterations on resting functional connectivity (RFC) strengths between pain responders and nonresponders. Brain metrics of pediatric patients at admission to an intensive pain rehabilitative treatment program were evaluated. Pain responders reported significant pain improvement at discharge and/or follow-up whereas nonresponders reported no improvements, increases in pain, or emergence of new pain symptoms. The pain (responder/nonresponder) groups were compared with pain-free healthy controls to examine predictors of pain responder status via brain metrics. Our results show: (1) on admission, pain nonresponders had decreased grey matter density (GMD)...
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biorxiv_neursci: Pain Stickiness in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A role for the Nucleus Accumbens https://t.co/TC2m6eJss6 #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Pain Stickiness in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A role for the Nucleus Accumbens https://t.co/8u08c0AwTa #bioRxiv
perothwell: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Pain Stickiness in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A role for the Nucleus Accumbens https://t.co/TC2m6eJss6 #biorxiv_…
imawla: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Pain Stickiness in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A role for the Nucleus Accumbens https://t.co/TC2m6eJss6 #biorxiv_…
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 0
Unqiue Words: 0

1.999 Mikeys
#5. Convergence of unisensory-evoked signals via multiple pathways to the cerebellum
Misa Shimuta, Izumi Sugihara, Taro Ishikawa
The cerebellum receives signals directly from peripheral sensory systems and indirectly from the neocortex. To reveal how these different types of signals are processed in the cerebellar cortex, in vivo whole-cell recordings from granule cells and unit recordings from Purkinje cells were performed in mice in which primary somatosensory cortex (S1) could be optogenetically inhibited. Tactile stimulation of the upper lip produced two-phase granule cell responses (with latencies of ~8 ms and 28 ms), for which only the late phase was S1 dependent. Complex spikes and the late phase of simple spikes in Purkinje cells were also S1 dependent. These results indicate that individual granule cells integrate convergent inputs from the periphery and neocortex, and send their outputs to Purkinje cells, which then combine those signals with climbing fiber signals from the neocortex.
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PhilCorlett1: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Convergence of unisensory-evoked signals via multiple pathways to the cerebellum https://t.co/oBl04FlTvQ #biorxiv_neu…
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 0
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1.998 Mikeys
#6. Isolation and quantification of blood apoptotic bodies in neurological patients
Gemma Serrano de las Heras, Inmaculada Díaz-Maroto, Blanca Carrión, Ana Belén Perona-Moratalla, Julia Gracia, Sandra Arteaga, Francisco Hernández-Fernández, Jorge García-García, Beatriz Castro-Robles, Óscar Ayo-Martín, Tomás Segura
Dysregulation of apoptosis may contribute to the etiology and/or progression of several prevalent diseases, including stroke and neurodegenerative pathologies. So, detection of the apoptotic processes in patients would be useful in daily clinical practice, However, the in vivo analysis of apoptosis that occurs in tissue has limitations. We therefore propose to use circulating apoptotic bodies as biomarkers for measuring apoptotic death in neurological patients. Since there is no scientific literature establishing the most appropriate method for measuring apoptotic bodies from human blood samples, we here describe a reproducible centrifugation-based method combined with electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and flow cytometry studies to isolate, characterize and quantify plasma apoptotic bodies of patients with ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. The analysis revealed that our isolation protocol achieves notable recovery rates of highly-purified intact apoptotic bodies. This easy and rapid procedure...
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biorxiv_neursci: Isolation and quantification of blood apoptotic bodies in neurological patients https://t.co/5YvpwNZPjI #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Isolation and quantification of blood apoptotic bodies in neurological patients https://t.co/GKnTFYvImV #bioRxiv
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Authors: 11
Total Words: 8084
Unqiue Words: 2556

1.998 Mikeys
#7. Primary cilium cAMP regulates cyclic saltatory neuronal migration at the centrosome
Julie Stoufflet, Maxime Chaulet, Mohamed Doulazmi, Coralie Fouquet, Caroline Dubacq, Christine Metin, Alain Trembleau, Pierre Vincent, Isabelle Caille
The primary cilium (PC) is crucial for neuronal migration but the underlying cellular mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, we show that ciliary-produced cAMP present at the centrosome locally activates cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA). We analyzed cAMP dynamics through biosensor live-imaging in cyclic saltatory migrating neurons of the mouse postnatal rostral migratory stream. This revealed a dynamic cAMP hotspot cyclically present at the centrosome, thus located at the basis of the PC. Genetic ablation of the PC and knock-down of the ciliary Adenylate Cyclase 3 lead to the hotspot disappearance. They also affect migration with defective centrosome/nucleus coupling leading to altered nucleokinesis, which is recapitulated by PKA genetic delocalization. We thus show that PC and centrosome act as a single signaling unit, linked by ciliary cAMP diffusion regulating the rhythmicity of saltatory migration at the centrosome. We generalized this finding to embryonic and adult migrating neurons.
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biorxiv_neursci: Primary cilium cAMP regulates cyclic saltatory neuronal migration at the centrosome https://t.co/Kb3m0I2V7P #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Primary cilium cAMP regulates cyclic saltatory neuronal migration at the centrosome https://t.co/fJYcOmVI3h #bioRxiv
jmcin9: RT @biorxivpreprint: Primary cilium cAMP regulates cyclic saltatory neuronal migration at the centrosome https://t.co/fJYcOmVI3h #bioRxiv
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Sample Sizes : [12, 3, 50, 140, 109, 99, 68, 141, 2, 17, 3, 48, 3, 40, 2, 48, 3, 48, 3, 40, 2, 48, 3, 48, 3, 40, 2, 48, 4, 58, 3, 80, 4, 58, 3, 80, 4, 58, 3, 80, 3, 48, 3, 40, 2, 48, 3, 48, 3, 40, 2, 48, 30, 44, 3, 48, 3, 146, 3, 48, 3, 146, 3, 48, 3, 146, 3, 50, 3, 86, 3, 50, 3, 86, 3, 48, 3, 146, 3, 86, 3, 48, 3, 146, 3, 86, 3, 48, 3, 146, 3, 86]
Authors: 9
Total Words: 11021
Unqiue Words: 3170

1.997 Mikeys
#8. Frameshift mutations of YPEL3 alter the sensory circuit function in Drosophila
Jung Hwan Kim, Monika Singh, Geng Pan, Adrian Lopez, Nicholas Zito, Benjamin Bosse, Bing Ye
A frameshift mutation in Yippee-like (YPEL) 3 was recently found from a rare human disorder with peripheral neurological conditions including hypotonia and areflexia. The YPEL gene family is highly conserved from yeast to human, but their functions are poorly defined. Moreover, the pathogenicity of the human YPEL3 variant is completely unknown. To tackle these issues, we generated a Drosophila model of human YPEL3 variant by CRISPR-mediated In-del mutagenesis. Gene-trap analysis suggests that Drosophila YPEL3 (dYPEL3) is predominantly expressed in subsets of neurons, including nociceptors. Analysis on chemical nociception induced by allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural chemical stimulant, revealed a reduced nociceptive response in dYPEL3 mutants. Subsequent circuit analysis showed a reduction in the activation of second-order neurons (SONs) in the pathway without affecting nociceptor activation upon AITC treatment. Although the gross axonal and dendritic development of nociceptors was not affected, the synaptic contact between...
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biorxiv_neursci: Frameshift mutations of YPEL3 alter the sensory circuit function in Drosophila https://t.co/KOzmUdS4jx #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Frameshift mutations of YPEL3 alter the sensory circuit function in Drosophila https://t.co/RgC7Bs8h4A #bioRxiv
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Authors: 7
Total Words: 0
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1.997 Mikeys
#9. Feasibility of Remotely Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Cognitive Remediation: A Systematic Review
Nicole Gough, Lea Brkan, Ponnusamy Subramaniam, Lina Chiuccariello, Alessandra De Petrillo, Benoit Mulsant, Christopher Bowie, Tarek K Rajji
With technological advancements and an aging population, there is growing interest in delivering interventions at home. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Cognitive Remediation (CR) have been widely studied, but mainly in laboratories or hospitals. Thus, the objectives of this review are to examine feasibility and the interventions components to support the domiciliary administration of tDCS and CR. We performed a systematic search of electronic databases, websites and reference lists of included articles from the first date available until October 31, 2018. Articles included had to meet the following criteria: original work published in English using human subjects, majority of tDCS or CR intervention administered remotely. A total of 39 studies were identified (16 tDCS, 23 CR/cognitive training, 5 using both tDCS & cognitive training). Four studies were single case studies and two were multiple case studies. The remaining 33 studies had a range of 9 – 135 participants. Five tDCS and nine CR/cognitive training...
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Authors: 8
Total Words: 0
Unqiue Words: 0

1.997 Mikeys
#10. The Trend of Suicide Reporting in the Media: an Effectiveness Study of Daily Surveillance over Nine Years
Chia-Yi Wu, Ming-Been Lee, Shih-Cheng Liao, Chia-Ta Chan, Chun-Ying Chen
Inadequate media reporting on suicide can cause copycat suicide attempts. The study aimed to assess the effect of a surveillance program by the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center (TSPC) on the quality of news media reporting of suicide. The TSPC conducted daily surveillance with timely feedback and interactive approaches to suicide reporting for four major newspapers. To test the effectiveness of surveillance, adherence to the 12-item WHO guideline was analyzed for print media yearly from 2010 to 2018, and for online media by month for 2017 and 2018. Results showed that over the nine years, the amount of suicide reporting in print newspapers markedly decreased, but it increased sharply for online media. Surveillance of print media showed significant improvement in suicide reporting adherence to all guideline items except "Do not publish photo or suicide notes." Adherence was excellent for half of the 12 items, around 90%. Marked improvement was observed in the items "Do not report specific details of the suicide method," "Do not...
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 4607
Unqiue Words: 1430

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