Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Neuroscience


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#1. NREM consolidation and increased spindle counts improve age-related memory impairments and hippocampal representations
Robin K. Yuan, Matthew Roberto Lopez, Mar E. Normandin, Arthur S. Thomas, Vanessa R. Cerda, Amandine E. Grenier, Matthew T. Wood, Celia M. Gagliardi, Isabel A. Muzzio
Age-related changes in sleep patterns have been linked to cognitive decline. Specifically, age is associated with increased fragmentation of sleep and wake cycles. Yet it remains unknown if improvements in sleep architecture can ameliorate cellular and cognitive deficits. We evaluated how changes in sleep architecture following sleep restriction affected hippocampal representations and memory in young and old mice. Following training in a hippocampus dependent object/place recognition task, control animals were allowed to sleep normally, while experimental animals underwent 5 hr of sleep restriction (SR). Interestingly, old SR mice exhibited proper object/place memory, similarly to young control mice, whereas young SR and old control mice did not. Successful memory correlated with the presence of two hippocampal cell types: 1) 'Context' cells, which remained stable throughout training and testing, and 2) 'Object' cells, which shifted their preferred firing location when objects were introduced to the context and moved during...
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biorxiv_neursci: NREM consolidation and increased spindle counts improve age-related memory impairments and hippocampal representations https://t.co/7BPuA9rQ7m #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: NREM consolidation and increased spindle counts improve age-related memory impairments and hippocampal representations https://t.co/SFwnZ0btQ7 #bioRxiv
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Authors: 9
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#2. An electrodiffusive, ion conserving Pinsky-Rinzel model with homeostatic mechanisms
Marte J. Sætra, Gaute T. Einevoll, Geir Halnes
p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; color: #000000} Most neuronal models are based on the assumption that ion concentrations remain constant during the simulated period, and do not account for possible effects of concentration variations on ionic reversal potentials, or of ionic diffusion on electrical potentials. Here, we present what is, to our knowledge, the first multicompartmental neuron model that accounts for electrodiffusive ion concentration dynamics in a way that ensures a biophysically consistent relationship between ion concentrations, electrical charge, and electrical potentials in both the intra- and extracellular space. The model, which we refer to as the electrodiffusive Pinsky-Rinzel (edPR) model, is an expanded version of the two-compartment Pinsky-Rinzel (PR) model of a hippocampal CA3 neuron, where we have included homeostatic mechanisms and ion-specific leakage currents. Whereas the main dynamical variable in the original PR model is the transmembrane potential, the edPR model in...
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HubBucket: RT @biorxivpreprint: An electrodiffusive, ion conserving Pinsky-Rinzel model with homeostatic mechanisms https://t.co/SGANslhhYk #bioRxiv
dr_ppetrov: RT @biorxiv_neursci: An electrodiffusive, ion conserving Pinsky-Rinzel model with homeostatic mechanisms https://t.co/lgJM0RTIlP #biorxiv_…
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#3. Optimal spectral templates for triggered feedback experiments
Anand S Kulkarni, Todd W Troyer
In the field of songbird neuroscience, researchers have used playback of aversive noise bursts to drive changes in song behavior for specific syllables within a bird's song. Typically, a short (~5-10 msec) slice of the syllable is selected for targeting and the average spectrum of the slice is used as a template. Sounds that are sufficiently close to the template are considered a match. If other syllables have portions that are spectrally similar to the target, false positive errors will weaken the operant contingency. We present a gradient descent method for template optimization that increases the separation in distance between target and distractors slices, greatly improving targeting accuracy. Applied to songs from five adult Bengalese finches, the fractional reduction in errors for sub-syllabic slices was 51.54±22.92%. At the level of song syllables, we use an error metric that controls for the vastly greater number of distractors vs. target syllables. Setting 5% average error (misses + false positives) as a minimal...
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biorxiv_neursci: Optimal spectral templates for triggered feedback experiments https://t.co/9akwe4ktHf #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Optimal spectral templates for triggered feedback experiments https://t.co/QltO4WRN7n #bioRxiv
HubBucket: RT @biorxivpreprint: Optimal spectral templates for triggered feedback experiments https://t.co/QltO4WRN7n #bioRxiv
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#4. Inferring a simple mechanism for alpha-blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra
Agus Hartoyo, Peter Cadusch, David Liley, Damien Hicks
Alpha blocking, a phenomenon where the alpha rhythm is reduced by attention to a visual, auditory, tactile or cognitive stimulus, is one of the most prominent features of human electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Here we identify a simple physiological mechanism by which opening of the eyes causes attenuation of the alpha rhythm. We fit a neural population model to EEG spectra from 82 subjects, each showing different degrees of alpha blocking upon opening of their eyes. Although it is notoriously difficult to estimate parameters from fitting such models, we show that, by regularizing the differences in parameter estimates between eyes-closed and eyes-open states, we can reduce the uncertainties in these differences without significantly compromising fit quality. From this emerges a parsimonious explanation for the spectral changes between states: Just a single parameter, pei , corresponding to the strength of a tonic, excitatory input to the inhibitory population, is sufficient to explain the reduction in alpha rhythm upon...
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biorxiv_neursci: Inferring a simple mechanism for alpha-blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra https://t.co/jm8RKX0GYP #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Inferring a simple mechanism for alpha-blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra https://t.co/4n8n9B8Srj #bioRxiv
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#5. Neurons from human mesenchymal stem cells display both spontaneous and stimuli responsive activity
Nihal Karakas, Sadık Bay, Nezaket Turkel, Merve Öncül, Hülya Bilgen, Khalid Shah, Fikrettin Şahin, Gürkan Öztürk
Mesenchymal stem cells are one of the promising tissue specific stem cell source for neural tissue regeneration applications. Previous studies on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) derived neurons have been limited and not statisfactory in terms of neuronal activity. In this study, we analysed the functionality of bone marrow hMSCs differentiated into neural protein expressing cells by a single step cytokine based induction protocol. Neurons from both primary hMSCs and hMSC cell line displayed spontaneous activity (≥75%) as demonstrated by Ca ++  imaging. Furthermore, when electrically stimulated, hMSC induced neurons (hMd-Neuron) matched the response of a typical neuron in the process of maturation. Our results reveal that enriched neurothrophic factors enhance differentiation capacity of bone marrow hMSCs into high yielding functional neurons with spontaneous activity and mature into electrophysiologically active state. hMd-Neurons have the potential to be used as a tool for disease modelling of neuropathologies and neural...
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biorxiv_neursci: Neurons from human mesenchymal stem cells display both spontaneous and stimuli responsive activity https://t.co/gMEr3FLG4b #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Neurons from human mesenchymal stem cells display both spontaneous and stimuli responsive activity https://t.co/wElataoCa9 #bioRxiv
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#6. NEURAL OSCILLATIONS DISSOCIATE BETWEEN MAINTENANCE AND PROCEDURALIZATION OF NOVEL INSTRUCTIONS
Silvia Formica, Carlos González-García, Mehdi Senoussi, Marcel Brass
Humans are extremely efficient in rapidly and flexibly converting complex symbolic instructions into novel behaviors. Previous evidence and theoretical models suggest that the implementation of a novel instruction requires the reformatting of its declarative content into an action-oriented code optimized for the execution of the instructed behavior. While neuroimaging research focused on identifying the brain areas involved in such process, its temporal profile and electrophysiological characteristics remain unknown. In the present study, we recorded EEG while we asked participants to either simply maintain declaratively the content of novel S-R mappings for recognition or to proactively prepare for their implementation. By means of time-frequency analyses, we isolated the oscillatory features specifically associated with the proceduralization of the encoded instruction. Before the onset of the implementation target, we observed stronger delta/low-theta activity over frontal electrodes and a significant suppression in mu and beta...
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#7. Acetylcholine prioritises direct synaptic inputs from entorhinal cortex to 1 CA1 by differential modulation of feedforward inhibitory circuits
Jon Palacios-Filardo, Matt Udakis, Giles A Brown, Benjamin G Tehan, Miles S Congreve, Pradeep J Nathan, Alastair J H Brown, Jack Mellor
Acetylcholine release in the hippocampus plays a central role in the formation of new memory representations by facilitating synaptic plasticity. It is also proposed that memory formation requires acetylcholine to enhance responses in CA1 to new sensory information from entorhinal cortex whilst depressing inputs from previously encoded representations in CA3, but this influential theory has not been directly tested. Here, we show that excitatory inputs from entorhinal cortex and CA3 are depressed equally by synaptic release of acetylcholine in CA1. However, greater depression of feedforward inhibition from entorhinal cortex results in an overall enhancement of excitatory-inhibitory balance and CA1 activation. Underpinning the prioritisation of entorhinal inputs, entorhinal and CA3 pathways engage distinct feedforward interneuron subpopulations and depression is mediated differentially by presynaptic muscarinic M3 and M4 receptors respectively. These mechanisms enable acetylcholine to prioritise novel information inputs to CA1...
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biorxiv_neursci: Acetylcholine prioritises direct synaptic inputs from entorhinal cortex to 1 CA1 by differential modulation of feedforward ... https://t.co/y7lntJPMPo #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Acetylcholine prioritises direct synaptic inputs from entorhinal cortex to 1 CA1 by differential modulation of feedforward inhibitory circuits https://t.co/8byAfLHA7y #bioRxiv
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Total Words: 18655
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#8. Cocaine triggers glial-mediated synaptogenesis
Junshi Wang, King-Lun Li, Avani Shukla, Ania Beroun, Masago Ishikawa, Xiaojie Huang, Yao Wang, Yao Q Wang, Noah D Bastola, Hugh H Huang, Lily E Kramer, Terry Chao, Yanhua H Huang, Susan R Sesack, Eric J Nestler, Oliver M Schluter, Yan Dong
Synaptogenesis is essential in forming new neurocircuits during development, and this is mediated in part by astrocyte-released thrombospondins (TSPs) and activation of their neuronal receptor, α2δ-1. Here, we show that this developmental synaptogenic mechanism is utilized during cocaine experience to induce spinogenesis and the generation of AMPA receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the adult nucleus accumbens (NAc). Specifically, cocaine administration activates NAc astrocytes, and preventing this activation blocks cocaine-induced generation of silent synapses. Furthermore, knockout of TSP2, or pharmacological inhibition or viral-mediated knockdown of α2δ-1, prevents cocaine-induced generation of silent synapses. Moreover, disrupting TSP2-α2δ-1-mediated spinogenesis and silent synapse generation in the NAc occludes cue-induced cocaine seeking after withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after drug extinction. These results establish that silent synapses are generated by...
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biorxiv_neursci: Cocaine triggers glial-mediated synaptogenesis https://t.co/8633Bnyh9w #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Cocaine triggers glial-mediated synaptogenesis https://t.co/5xj7SNxrfv #bioRxiv
kwitschas: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Cocaine triggers glial-mediated synaptogenesis https://t.co/8633Bnyh9w #biorxiv_neursci
holtlm90: RT @biorxiv_neursci: Cocaine triggers glial-mediated synaptogenesis https://t.co/8633Bnyh9w #biorxiv_neursci
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#9. Role of prefrontal cortex projections to the nucleus accumbens core in mediating the effects of ceftriaxone on cued cocaine relapse
Allison R Bechard, Carly N Logan, Javier Mesa, Yasmin Padovan Hernandez, Harrison Blount, Virginia Hodges, Lori A Knackstedt
Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic that reliably attenuates the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking after extinction while preventing the nucleus accumbens (NA) core glutamate efflux that drives reinstatement. However, when rats undergo abstinence without extinction, ceftriaxone attenuates context-primed relapse but NA core glutamate efflux still increases. Here we sought to determine if the same would occur when relapse is prompted by both context and discrete cues (context+cues) after cocaine abstinence. Male rats self-administered intravenous cocaine for 2 hr/day for 2 weeks. Cocaine delivery was accompanied by drug-associated cues (light+tone). Rats were then placed into abstinence with daily handling but no extinction training for two weeks. Ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg IP) or vehicle was administered during the last 6 days of abstinence. During a context+cue relapse test, microdialysis procedures were conducted. Rats were perfused at the end of the test for later Fos analysis. A separate cohort of rats was infused with the retrograde...
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biorxiv_neursci: Role of prefrontal cortex projections to the nucleus accumbens core in mediating the effects of ceftriaxone on cued cocaine relapse https://t.co/wa1jHd9BBo #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: Role of prefrontal cortex projections to the nucleus accumbens core in mediating the effects of ceftriaxone on cued cocaine relapse https://t.co/0qyxVCGOAD #bioRxiv
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Authors: 7
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#10. The Developing Human Connectome Project: typical and disrupted functional connectivity across the perinatal period
Michael Eyre, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Judit Ciarrusta, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Anthony N Price, Tanya Poppe, Andreas Schuh, Emer Hughes, Camilla O'Keeffe, Jakki Brandon, Daniel Cromb, Katy Vecchiato, Jesper Andersson, Eugene P Duff, Serena J Counsell, Stephen M Smith, Daniel Rueckert, Joseph V Hajnal, Tomoki Arichi, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Dafnis Batalle, A David Edwards
The Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) is an Open Science project which provides the first large sample of neonatal functional MRI (fMRI) data with high temporal and spatial resolution. This data enables mapping of intrinsic functional connectivity between spatially distributed brain regions under normal and adverse perinatal circumstances, offering a framework to study the ontogeny of large-scale brain organisation in humans. Here, we characterise in unprecedented detail the maturation and integrity of resting-state networks (RSNs) at normal term age in 337 infants (including 65 born preterm). First, we applied group independent component analysis (ICA) to define 11 RSNs in term-born infants scanned at 43.5-44.5 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Adult-like topography was observed in RSNs encompassing primary sensorimotor, visual and auditory cortices. Among six higher-order, association RSNs, analogues of the adult networks for language and ocular control were identified, but a complete default mode network precursor was...
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biorxiv_neursci: The Developing Human Connectome Project: typical and disrupted functional connectivity across the perinatal period https://t.co/QbsaROulFH #biorxiv_neursci
biorxivpreprint: The Developing Human Connectome Project: typical and disrupted functional connectivity across the perinatal period https://t.co/0Z95BdYyEs #bioRxiv
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Authors: 22
Total Words: 11845
Unqiue Words: 3605

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