Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Microbiology


2.045 Mikeys
#1. In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography
Debnath Ghosal, Ki Woo Kim, Huaixin Zheng, Mohammed Kaplan, Joseph P. Vogel, Nicholas P. Cianciotto, Grant J Jensen
The type II secretion system (T2SS) is a multi-protein envelope-spanning assembly that translocates a wide range of virulence factors, enzymes and effectors through the outer membrane (OM) of many Gram-negative bacteria. Here, using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging methods, we present the first in situ structure of an intact T2SS, imaged within the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Although the T2SS has only limited sequence and component homology with the evolutionarily-related Type IV pilus (T4P) system, we show that their overall architectures are remarkably similar. Despite similarities, there are also differences, including for instance that the T2SS-ATPase complex is usually present but disengaged from the inner membrane, the T2SS has a much longer periplasmic vestibule, and it has a short-lived flexible pseudopilus. Placing atomic models of the components into our ECT map produced a complete architectural model of the intact T2SS that provides new insights into the structure and function of its...
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biorxivpreprint: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/yXs60DBBA6 #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/PlzIsGdQMS #biorxiv_micrbio
cryoEM_Papers: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/pNfBja6zu4
PromPreprint: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/wjawHfHAf1
jsteward2930: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/PlzIsGdQMS #bior…
t2438: RT @cryoEM_Papers: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/pNfBja6zu4
genolib_19: RT @biorxivpreprint: In vivo structure of the Legionella type II secretion system by electron cryotomography https://t.co/yXs60DBBA6 #bioR…
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Authors: 7
Total Words: 10064
Unqiue Words: 3234

2.01 Mikeys
#2. Replicating Arabidopsis Model Leaf Surfaces for Phyllosphere Microbiology
Rebecca Soffe, Michal Bernach, Mitja Remus-Emsermann, Volker Nock
Artificial surfaces are commonly used in place of leaves in phyllosphere microbiology to study microbial behaviour on plant leaf surfaces. Studies looking into individual environmental factors influencing microorganisms are routinely carried out using artificial surfaces. Commonly used artificial surfaces include nutrient agar, isolated leaf cuticles, and reconstituted leaf waxes. However, interest is growing in using microstructured surfaces mimicking the complex topography of leaf surfaces for phyllosphere microbiology. As such replica leaf surfaces, produced by microfabrication, are appearing in literature. Replica leaf surfaces have been produced in agar, epoxy, polystyrene, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, these protocols are not suitable for replicating fragile leaves such as of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This is of importance as A. thaliana is a model system for molecular plant genetics, molecular plant biology, and microbial ecology. Here we present a versatile replication protocol for replicating...
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biorxivpreprint: Replicating Arabidopsis Model Leaf Surfaces for Phyllosphere Microbiology https://t.co/cfxs4fA2tJ #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Replicating Arabidopsis Model Leaf Surfaces for Phyllosphere Microbiology https://t.co/xD6LJpgp7B #biorxiv_micrbio
msmjetten: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: Replicating Arabidopsis Model Leaf Surfaces for Phyllosphere Microbiology https://t.co/xD6LJpgp7B #biorxiv_micrbio
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 9288
Unqiue Words: 2664

2.008 Mikeys
#3. Effect of ceftiofur cessation and substitution with lincomycin-spectinomycin on extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC genes and multidrug resistance in E. coli from a Canadian broiler production pyramid
Luc Verrette, John M Fairbrother, Martine Boulianne
Ceftiofur, a cephalosporin antimicrobial, was used systematically in Canadian hatcheries for many years to prevent early mortality in chicks leading to a high prevalence of cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli in chickens. Preventive use of ceftiofur in hatcheries ceased in 2014. We examined the effect of ceftiofur cessation and replacement with lincomycin-spectinomycin at the hatchery on the proportion of E. coli positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase related genes, and on the multidrug resistance profiles of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli in broilers and their associated breeders, at one year post-cessation. For indicator E. coli from non-enriched media, a significant decrease post-cessation in the proportion of samples harboring E. coli isolates positive for blaCMY-2 and/or blaCTX-M was observed. In contrast, following enrichment in medium containing ceftriaxone (1mg/L) to facilitate recovery of ESBL/AmpC β-lactamase producing E. coli colonies, both pre- and post-cessation, 99% of the samples...
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biorxivpreprint: Effect of ceftiofur cessation and substitution with lincomycin-spectinomycin on extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC genes and multidrug resistance in E. coli from a Canadian broiler production pyramid https://t.co/AQDBVK80xN #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Effect of ceftiofur cessation and substitution with lincomycin-spectinomycin on extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC genes and ... https://t.co/Xokw8ePLZV #biorxiv_micrbio
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Sample Sizes : [144, 145, 15, 269, 5, 22, 22, 16, 16, 14, 14, 24, 22]
Authors: 3
Total Words: 9750
Unqiue Words: 2699

2.008 Mikeys
#4. Comparative analysis of ionic strength tolerance between freshwater and marine Caulobacterales adhesins
Nelson Kiplangat Chepkwony, Cécile Berne, Yves V Brun
Bacterial adhesion is affected by environmental factors, such as ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear forces, and therefore marine bacteria must have developed holdfasts with different composition and structures than their freshwater counterparts to adapt to their natural environment. The dimorphic a-proteobacterium Hirschia baltica is a marine budding bacterium in the Caulobacterales clade. H. baltica uses a polar adhesin, the holdfast, located at the cell pole opposite the reproductive stalk for surface attachment and cell-cell adhesion. The holdfast adhesin has been best characterized in Caulobacter crescentus , a freshwater member of the Caulobacterales, and little is known about holdfast composition and properties in marine Caulobacterales. Here we use H. baltica as a model to characterize holdfast properties in marine Caulobacterales. We show that freshwater and marine Caulobacterales use similar genes in holdfast biogenesis and that these genes are highly conserved among the two genera. We also determine that H....
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biorxivpreprint: Comparative analysis of ionic strength tolerance between freshwater and marine Caulobacterales adhesins https://t.co/Bj1f8Eb4QI #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Comparative analysis of ionic strength tolerance between freshwater and marine Caulobacterales adhesins https://t.co/EzWoFuQoln #biorxiv_micrbio
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 3
Total Words: 16226
Unqiue Words: 4248

2.008 Mikeys
#5. Seasonal microbial dynamics on grapevine leaves under biocontrol and copper fungicide treatments
Alex Gobbi, Ifigeneia Kyrkou, Elisa Filippi, Lea Ellegaard-Jensen, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen
Winemakers have long used copper as a fungicide on grapevine. However, the potential of copper to accumulate on soil and affect the biota poses a challenge to achieving sustainable agriculture. One recently developed option is the use of biocontrol agents to replace or complement traditional methods. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in South Africa in which the leaves in two blocks of a vineyard were periodically treated with either copper sulphate or sprayed with Lactobacillus plantarum MW-1 as a biocontrol agent. This study evaluated the impact of the two treatments on the bacterial and fungal communities as they changed during the growing season. To do this, NGS was combined with quantitative strain-specific and community qPCRs. The results revealed the progression of the microbial communities throughout the season and how the different treatments affected the microbiota. Bacteria appeared to be relatively stable at the different time points, with the only taxa that systematically changed between...
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biorxivpreprint: Seasonal microbial dynamics on grapevine leaves under biocontrol and copper fungicide treatments https://t.co/pcO8zesABk #bioRxiv
biorxiv_micrbio: Seasonal microbial dynamics on grapevine leaves under biocontrol and copper fungicide treatments https://t.co/eG0InajgiI #biorxiv_micrbio
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 10520
Unqiue Words: 3701

2.008 Mikeys
#6. How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions
David W. Armitage, Stuart E. Jones
Compositional data are commonly subjected to computational tools such as correlation networks, null models, and dynamic models, with the goal of identifying the ecological processes structuring microbial communities. Researchers applying these methods assume that the signs and magnitudes of species interactions and vital rates can be reliably parsed from compositional data. However, we contend that this assumption is violated when sample units contain any underlying spatial structure. Here, we show how three phenomena - Simpson's paradox, context-dependence, and nonlinear averaging - can lead to erroneous conclusions about population parameters and species interactions when samples contain heterogeneous mixtures of populations or communities. At the root of this issue is the fundamental mismatch between the spatial scales of species interactions (micrometres) and that of a typical marker gene sample (millimetres to centimetres). These issues can be overcome by measuring and accounting for spatial heterogeneity at very small...
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jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
msmjetten: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
arwynedwards: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
Pedro_ABPereira: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
claczny: RT @jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
mehrshmali: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
BlakeStamps: RT @jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
microbe_angler: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
perilousUnknown: RT @jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
msdueholm: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
dse_fungi: RT @jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
li_chenhao: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
yanxian_l: RT @jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
TongZhou2017: RT @jcamthrash: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/6FwKXi4uOu
Tine415: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: How sample heterogeneity can obscure the signal of microbial interactions https://t.co/joFZxcEoEW #biorxiv_micrbio
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Authors: 2
Total Words: 5314
Unqiue Words: 1969

2.003 Mikeys
#7. Unisexual reproduction promotes foraging for mating partners in the global human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deneoformans
Ci Fu, Torin P. Thielhelm, Joseph Heitman
Courtship is an important step towards successful mating in sexual organisms. However, courtship is challenging for the Cryptococcus neoformans pathogenic species complex, comprised of opportunistic fungal pathogens, as 99% of isolates are of the α mating type. In the absence of mating partners of the opposite mating type, C. deneoformans can undergo unisexual reproduction, during which a yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition occurs. Unisexual hyphal growth is a quantitative trait, which reflects a strain's relative ability to undergo unisexual reproduction. In this study, we determined whether unisexual reproduction confers an ecological benefit by promoting foraging for mating partners. Through competitive mating assays using strains with different ability to undergo unisexual reproduction, this sexual cycle did not enhance competition for mating partners of the same mating type, but when cells of the opposite mating type were present, cells with enhanced unisexual reproduction were more competitive for mating partners of...
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WhippingFungi: courtship-like long-distance foraging for mating partners in the fungal kingdom! https://t.co/ya9RRKAmMw
HJTsai: Unisexual reproduction promotes foraging for mating partners in the global human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deneoformans https://t.co/hUkookPeJF
MarineMycoholic: RT @WhippingFungi: courtship-like long-distance foraging for mating partners in the fungal kingdom! https://t.co/ya9RRKAmMw
TonyBurnetti: RT @WhippingFungi: courtship-like long-distance foraging for mating partners in the fungal kingdom! https://t.co/ya9RRKAmMw
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 11914
Unqiue Words: 3162

2.002 Mikeys
#8. The role of Caulobacter cell surface structures in colonization of the air-liquid interface
Aretha Fiebig
Abstract : In aquatic environments, Caulobacter spp. are often present at the boundary between liquid and air known as the neuston. I report an approach to study temporal features of Caulobacter crescentus colonization and pellicle biofilm development at the air-liquid interface, and have defined the role of cell surface structures in this process. The flagellum enables motile swarmer cells to efficiently reach the oxygenated surface. Here, cells form a monolayer enriched in stalked cells bearing a surface adhesin known as a holdfast. When excised from the liquid surface, this monolayer strongly adheres to glass. The monolayer subsequently develops into a three-dimensional structure that is highly enriched in clusters of stalked cells known as rosettes. As the pellicle film matures, it becomes more cohesive and less adherent to a glass surface. A mutant strain lacking a flagellum does not efficiently reach the surface, and strains lacking type IV pili exhibit defects in organization of the three-dimensional pellicle. Strains...
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BriegelAriane: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: The role of Caulobacter cell surface structures in colonization of the air-liquid interface https://t.co/5EWVYF7jaZ #…
rabbleroyal: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: The role of Caulobacter cell surface structures in colonization of the air-liquid interface https://t.co/5EWVYF7jaZ #…
BlastMeetings: RT @biorxiv_micrbio: The role of Caulobacter cell surface structures in colonization of the air-liquid interface https://t.co/5EWVYF7jaZ #…
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Sample Sizes : [2]
Authors: 1
Total Words: 11270
Unqiue Words: 3378

2.001 Mikeys
#9. The symmetrical pattern of base-pair substitutions rates across the chromosome in Escherichia coli has multiple causes
Brittany A Niccum, Heewook Lee, Wasim MohammedIsmail, Haixu Tang, Patricia L. Foster
Background: Mutation accumulation experiments followed by whole-genome sequencing have revealed that for several bacterial species, the rate of base-pair substitutions (BPSs) varies across the chromosome in a wave-like pattern that is symmetrical about the origin of replication. The experiments presented here investigate the causes of this pattern in Escherichia coli. Results: The timing of replication initiation, the progression of the replication fork, and the structure of the region where replication terminates all affect the mutational density pattern. As predicted previously, the activities of the nucleoid binding proteins, HU and Fis, are also important, suggesting that mutation rates increase when highly structured DNA regions are replicated. Biases in error-correction by proofreading and mismatch repair are major factors in establishing the pattern. A mutation accumulation experiment with mismatch-repair defective Bacillus subtilis revealed a similar symmetrical pattern of BPS rates. Conclusions: The symmetrical pattern of...
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microRNApro: @WiringTheBrain Neo-Darwinism failed because theorists tried to link base-pair substitution rates from the energy-as-information-dependent "...initiation, progression, and termination of DNA replication, error-correction..." to chromosome structure" without the energy. https://t.co/rbNONIA1zF
oh3kqd: RT @microRNApro: The symmetrical pattern of base-pair substitutions...https://t.co/rbNONIA1zF 'evolution' is "...determined by the initiati…
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 14650
Unqiue Words: 3924

2.0 Mikeys
#10. Direct visualization of membrane-spanning pores formed by a Leishmania amazonensis pore-forming cytolysin, as probed by atomic force microscopy
Thiago Castro-Gomes, José Mário Vilela, Margareth Spangler Andrade, Paulo Sérgio Beirão, Frédéric Frézard, Maria Fátima Horta
We have previously shown that Leishmania amazonensis produces and secretes a cytolysin that lyses membranes of mammalian cells, including macrophages, its host cell. Using the patch-clamp technique, we have previously demonstrated that the mechanism by which this cytolysin rupture macrophages plasma membrane is by pore formation, which lead us to name it leishporin. While we have characterized leishporin in several aspects, its molecular identity is still unknown. Its behavior suggests that leishporin is, or depend on, a protein, but recent results also suggests that a non-protein molecule is involved in cell lysis. Although the patch-clamp has undeniably revealed that L. amazonensis extracts generates pores in macrophages, these structures have not been spotted on cell membranes, which prompted us to several questions: 1) What is the appearance of leishporin-induced pores? Is it similar to that of other described pores? 2) Do these pores physically span lipid bilayers? 4) Are their directly-measured sizes compatible with those...
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MaryRuberry: Direct visualization of membrane-spanning pores formed by a #Leishmania amazonensis pore-forming cytolysin, as probed by atomic force #microscopy https://t.co/NKRAjE6MbT
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 10145
Unqiue Words: 3348

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