Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Ecology


2.008 Mikeys
#1. SpitWorm, an herbivorous robot: Mechanical leaf wounding with simultaneous application of salivary components
Guanjun Li, Stefan Bartram, Huijuan Guo, Axel Mithöfer, Maritta Kunert, Wilhelm Boland
Induction of plant defense against insect herbivory is initiated by a combination of both, mechanical wounding and chemical factors. In order to study both effects independently on plant defense induction, SpitWorm, a computer controlled device which mimics the damage pattern of feeding insect larvae on leaves and can additionally apply oral secretions (OS) or other solutions to the ‘biting site’ during ‘feeding’, was developed and evaluated. The amount of OS left by a Spodoptera littoralis larva during feeding on Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean) leaves was estimated by combining larval foregut volume, biting rate, and quantification of a fluorescent dye injected into the larvae’s foregut prior to feeding. For providing OS amounts by SpitWorm equivalent to larval feeding, dilution and delivery rate were optimized. The effectiveness of SpitWorm was tested by comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of P. lunatus leaves treated with either SpitWorm, MecWorm or S. littoralis larvae. Identification and quantification of...
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biorxivpreprint: SpitWorm, an herbivorous robot: Mechanical leaf wounding with simultaneous application of salivary components https://t.co/b0ngaoWCfd #bioRxiv
biorxiv_ecology: SpitWorm, an herbivorous robot: Mechanical leaf wounding with simultaneous application of salivary components https://t.co/xPm2pjcji9 #biorxiv_ecology
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 11185
Unqiue Words: 3533

1.996 Mikeys
#2. Habitat fragmentation compromises on the population dynamic of the globally near-threatened Straight-billed Reedhaunter (Limnoctites rectirostris)
Maycon Sanyvan Goncalves, Priscila Pons, Felipe Bonow, Vinicius Augusto Galvao Bastazini, Jose Gil-Delgado, German Lopez Iborra
Understanding the consequences of habitat fragmentation to organism populations is crucial to develop sound conservation polices. The Straight-billed Reedhaunter (Limnoctites rectirostris) is a little known and threatened Passeriform that is highly dependent Erygo wetlands patches. Here, we evaluated the effects of habtat fragmentation on populations of the Straight-billed Reedhaunter, during the construction of a water reservoir in southern Brazil. During eight months, we monitored five Eryngo wetlands patches occupied (n=3) and no occupied (n=2) by Straight-billed Reedhaunter individuals, collecting data on their temporal occupancy patterns and registering new fragmentation events in formally continuous habitat patches. We employed an information-theoretic approach in order to evaluate the consequences of habitat fragmentation on the probabilities of patch occupancy, colonization and extinction of populations of the Straight-billed Reedhaunter. Out of the three patches occupied by Straight-billed Reedhaunter, two were not...
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Sample Sizes : [3, 2]
Authors: 6
Total Words: 4524
Unqiue Words: 1913

1.996 Mikeys
#3. Predictability of intraspecific size variation in extant planktonic foraminifera
Marina C. Rillo, Giles Miller, Michal Kucera, Thomas Ezard
Planktonic foraminifera (PF) size varies greatly both among and within species. This variation affects our understanding of PF ecology and evolution as well as reconstructions of the ocean-climate system. It is currently accepted that PF species are largest under optimum environmental conditions, where abundance is maximised. This idea is based on observations from marine sediment assemblages; however, these observations either had limited intraspecific resolution or focused on a restricted part of each species' biogeographical range. Here we compile a new global PF shell size dataset to investigate the relationship between intraspecific size variation and abundance and sea surface temperature (SST). Our dataset contains 3817 individual size measurements on nine PF species in 53 surface sediments around the world. For each species, we fitted a generalised linear model of population shell size as function of local abundance (as an indicator of optimum environmental conditions) and SST. We support previous results that species...
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 13992
Unqiue Words: 4174

0.0 Mikeys
#4. Risky home with easy food: Denning of a generalistic and widely distributed carnivore red fox
Hussain S Reshamwala, Neeraj Mahar, Rodolfo Dirzo, Bilal Habib
Dens are crucial for the survival of all canids, however, for a meso-carnivore like red fox, denning is of greater importance as they utilize dens all throughout the year for protection, resting and breeding. The red fox known for its generalist and opportunistic behavior and extremely good adaptability to the dynamic anthropogenic changes is the most widespread and successful wild land carnivore. With an ever-growing human population the choice of space for wild animals is limited and such adaptability is important for species survival. In this study we examined the denning preferences and den characteristics of red fox. Intensive surveys were conducted across two study sites Chiktan and Changthang. Foxes preferred to den on mountain slopes (43.70 ± 3.38 SE) where human disturbances were minimal. The red fox chose den sites closer to human settlements, water and road as compared to random points (Pillai's trace = .487, F= 31.014 and P = 3.497e-14), which are risky and may expose the pups to humans but also provide the advantage...
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biorxivpreprint: Risky home with easy food: Denning of a generalistic and widely distributed carnivore red fox https://t.co/788DL0Gysm #bioRxiv
biorxiv_ecology: Risky home with easy food: Denning of a generalistic and widely distributed carnivore red fox https://t.co/G8Zi469fEJ #biorxiv_ecology
Jeew333T: RT @biorxivpreprint: Risky home with easy food: Denning of a generalistic and widely distributed carnivore red fox https://t.co/788DL0Gysm…
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 5081
Unqiue Words: 2075

0.0 Mikeys
#5. Analysis of biological record data: improvements of the occupancy-detection models
SHIYU LI
Many indicators are used to monitor the progress of the target which aims to stop the biodiversity loss by 2020. However, the occupancy-detection model which is currently applied to calculate the indicator is biased. Hence, more robust models are required to track the trend of the species precisely. This research first reviews the previous works on improving this occupancy-detection model by changing the prior distributions of one of the quantities and of the models considered previously, a model based on a random walk is found to be the most appropriate although it has some potential deficiencies. Then this research provides some potential improvements of the random walk model by changing the way of modelling the prior distributions of each quantity and changing the model structure. Then the hoverflies datasets are used in this research to analyse the performance of the models. These models are compared by the running times of fitting the models and the plots of the trend of the species of all models. As a result, the categorical...
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biorxivpreprint: Analysis of biological record data: improvements of the occupancy-detection models https://t.co/hbiZQ7rsxZ #bioRxiv
biorxiv_ecology: Analysis of biological record data: improvements of the occupancy-detection models https://t.co/zbZkQsEjet #biorxiv_ecology
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Authors: 1
Total Words: 19104
Unqiue Words: 2383

0.0 Mikeys
#6. Microbial coexistence through chemical-mediated interactions
Lori Niehaus, Ian Boland, Minghao Liu, Kevin Chen, David Fu, Catherine Henckel, Kaitlin Chaung, Suyen Espinoza Miranda, Samantha Dyckman, Matthew Crum, Sandra Dedrick, Wenying Shou, Babak Momeni
Many microbial functions happen within communities of interacting species. Explaining how species with intrinsically disparate fitness can coexist is important for applications such as manipulating host-associated microbiota or engineering industrial communities. Previous coexistence studies have often neglected interaction mechanisms. Here, we formulate and experimentally constrain a model in which chemical mediators of microbial interactions (e.g. metabolites or waste-products) are explicitly incorporated. We construct many instances of coexistence by simulating community assembly through enrichment and ask how species interactions can explain coexistence. We show that growth-facilitating influences between members are favored in assembled communities. Among negative influences, self-restraint, such as production of self-inhibiting waste, contributes to coexistence, whereas inhibition of other species disrupts coexistence. Coexistence is also favored when interactions are mediated by depletable chemicals that get consumed or...
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bmomeni: How interactions among microbes can lead to their coexistence, now on bioRxiv: "Microbial coexistence through chemical-mediated interactions" https://t.co/qmfnP8jcRx @ShouGroup @MomeniLab
svetlana_up: Saturday reading 🍹Microbial coexistence through chemical-mediated interactions https://t.co/Aig5rjyC9J
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Authors: 13
Total Words: 14864
Unqiue Words: 3551

0.0 Mikeys
#7. Late greenhouse gas mitigation has heterogeneous effects on European caddisfly diversity patterns
Stephanie Renee Januchowski-Hartley, Christine Lauzeral, Astrid Schmidt-Kloiber, Wolfram Graf, Sebastien Brosse
Little remains known about how the timing of mitigation of current greenhouse gas emissions will influence freshwater biodiversity patterns. Using three general circulation models, we evaluate the response of 260 broad ranging European caddisfly species to climate conditions in 2080 under two scenarios: business as usual (A2A) and mitigation (A1B). If implemented effectively, recent government commitments established under COP21, to mitigate current greenhouse gas emissions, would result in future climatic conditions similar to the mitigation scenario we explored. Under the Cgcm circulation model, which we found to be the most conservative model, suitable environmental conditions were predicted to shift three degrees more to the east under the mitigation scenario compared to business as usual. The majority of broad-ranging European caddisfly species will benefit from mitigation, but 5 to 15% of species that we evaluated will be bigger losers under the mitigation scenario compared to business as usual. Under the mitigation...
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biorxivpreprint: Late greenhouse gas mitigation has heterogeneous effects on European caddisfly diversity patterns https://t.co/fKfoOzMixZ #bioRxiv
biorxiv_ecology: Late greenhouse gas mitigation has heterogeneous effects on European caddisfly diversity patterns https://t.co/8sQbxJXDoO #biorxiv_ecology
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 6419
Unqiue Words: 2155

0.0 Mikeys
#8. Predation risk and resource abundance mediate foraging behaviour and intraspecific resource partitioning among consumers in dominance hierarchies
Sean Naman, Rui Ueda, Takuya Sato
Dominance hierarchies and unequal resource partitioning among individuals are key mechanisms of population regulation. The strength of dominance hierarchies can be influenced by size dependent trade-offs between foraging and predator avoidance whereby competitively inferior subdominants can access a larger proportion of limiting resources by accepting higher predation risk. Foraging-predation risk trade-offs also depend on resource abundance. Yet, few studies have manipulated predation risk and resource abundance simultaneously; consequently, their joint effect on resource partitioning within dominance hierarchies are not well understood. We addressed this gap by measuring behavioural responses of masu salmon to experimental manipulations of predation risk and resource abundance in a natural temperate forest stream. Responses to predation risk depended on body size such that larger dominants exhibited more risk-averse behaviour (e.g., lower foraging and appearance rates) relative to smaller subdominants after exposure to a...
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 7550
Unqiue Words: 2730

0.0 Mikeys
#9. Recent trends in Tricolored Blackbird colony size: analysis of the 2008 through 2017 Triennial Statewide Surveys
Timothy D. Meehan, Samantha Arthur, Nicole L. Michel, Chad B. Wilsey, Gary M. Langham
Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) is a colonial breeder, largely restricted to grasslands, wetlands, and agricultural habitats of California. Tricolored blackbird abundance declined considerably during the 20th century. Recent trends have been less clear, however, hindering efforts to evaluate the conservation needs of the species. We assessed trends in tricolored blackbird colony size using the 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2017 Triennial Tricolored Blackbird Statewide Survey, a community-science effort involving hundreds of volunteer observers. After accounting for variation in observer characteristics and survey effort, we found a clear, statistically significant decline in colony size of approximately 5% per year, which translated to a decrease in colony size of approximately 40% between 2008 and 2017. To the extent that colony size is proportional to total abundance, this decline translates to a species half-life of roughly 15 years. We conclude that tricolored blackbird is in considerable need of protection and recovery efforts.
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 6144
Unqiue Words: 1640

0.0 Mikeys
#10. Every cloud has a silver lining: Moderate plant water stress positively impacts development, immunity, and gut microbiota of a specialist herbivore
Elena Rosa, Guillaume Minard, Johanna Lindholm, Marjo Saastamoinen
The ongoing global temperature rise has led to increasing frequency of drought events, negatively impacting vegetation and the living organisms relying on it. Extreme drought killing host plants can clearly reduce herbivore fitness, but the impact of moderate host plant water stress on insect herbivores can vary, and may even be beneficial. The Finnish Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) has faced reduced precipitation in recent years, which has impacted population dynamics. However, whether the negative effects depend on extreme desiccation killing the host plant or moderate drought impacting plant quality remains unclear. We assessed the performance of larvae fed on moderately water-stressed Plantago lanceolata in terms of growth, gut microbial composition and immune response. We found that larvae fed on water-stressed plants had better growth, a more heterogeneous bacterial community and a shifted fungal community in the gut, and up-regulated the expression of one candidate immune gene (pelle), whereas survival...
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 4
Total Words: 6372
Unqiue Words: 2665

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