Top 5 Biorxiv Papers Today
Global change impacts on the Earth System are typically evaluated using biome classifications based on trees and forests. However, during the Cenozoic, many terrestrial biomes were transformed through the displacement of trees and shrubs by grasses. While grasses comprise 3% of vascular plant species, they are responsible for more than 25% of terrestrial photosynthesis. Critically, grass dominance alters ecosystem dynamics and function by introducing new ecological processes, especially surface fires and grazing. However, the large grassy component of many global biomes is often neglected in their descriptions, thereby ignoring these important ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the functional diversity of grasses in vegetation models is usually reduced to C3 and C4 photosynthetic plant functional types, omitting other relevant traits. Here, we compile available data to determine the global distribution of grassy vegetation and key traits related to grass dominance. Grassy biomes (where > 50% of the ground layer is covered by...
Functional diversification enabled grassy biomes to fill global climate space https://t.co/956Ehx0iBv #bioRxiv
Functional diversification enabled grassy biomes to fill global climate space https://t.co/k4T0heS5rK #biorxiv_ecology
RT @biorxiv_ecology: Functional diversification enabled grassy biomes to fill global climate space https://t.co/k4T0heS5rK #biorxiv_ecology
Total Words: 18777
Unqiue Words: 6262
Rapid urbanization makes cities an increasingly important habitat for mosquito-borne infections. Although these diseases are both climate and poverty driven, the interaction of environmental and socio-economic factors at different spatial scales within cities remain poorly understood. We analyze 10 years of extensive surveillance dataset of falciparum malaria resolved at three different spatial resolutions for the city of Surat in Northwest India. The spatial pattern of malaria risk is found to be largely stationary in time. A Bayesian hierarchical mixed model that combines spatially explicit indicators of temperature, population density and poverty with interannual variability in humidity best explains and predicts these patterns. For the Indian subcontinent, which harbors a truly urban mosquito vector, malaria elimination should target disease hotspots within cities. We show that urban malaria risk patterns are strongly driven by fixed spatial structures, highlighting the key role of social and environmental inequality and the...
Local climate and social inequality drive spatio-temporal variation in malaria risk across a complex urban landscape https://t.co/tM694s8de3 #bioRxiv
Local climate and social inequality drive spatio-temporal variation in malaria risk across a complex urban landscape https://t.co/d8e368O4mH #biorxiv_ecology
Total Words: 9771
Unqiue Words: 3029
Alejandra Arce Indacochea,
Stef de Haan,
In the high Andes, environmental and socio-economic drivers are transforming land use and presumably affecting the in situ conservation of potato (Solanum spp.). To monitor the use and conservation of intraspecific diversity, systematic and comparative studies across land-use systems are needed. We investigated the spatial-temporal dynamics of potato in two contrasting landscapes of Peru’s central Andes: a highland plateau (Huancavelica) vs. an eastern slope (Pasco). We examined household-level areal allocations, altitudinal distribution, sectoral fallowing practices, and the conservation status for three main cultivar groups: (i) bred varieties, (ii) floury landraces, and (iii) bitter landraces. Mixed methods were used to survey 323 households and the 1,101 potato fields they managed in 2012–2013. We compared the contemporary altitudinal distribution of landraces with 1975–1985 altimeter genebank data from the International Potato Center. We show that intensification occurs in each landscape through adaptations of traditional...
The land-use dynamics of potato agrobiodiversity in the highlands of central Peru: a case study of spatial-temporal management across farming landscapes https://t.co/SZ9z5H807I #bioRxiv
The land-use dynamics of potato agrobiodiversity in the highlands of central Peru: a case study of spatial-temporal management ... https://t.co/uZpiQI3Tsu #biorxiv_ecology
Total Words: 16743
Unqiue Words: 5185
Elena M Turek,
Michael J Cox,
Saffron AG Willis-Owen,
A William Musk,
Miriam F Moffatt,
William Osmond Cookson
The airways of the lung carry microbiota that contribute to respiratory health. The ecology of normal airway microbial communities, their responses to environmental events, and the mechanisms through which they cause or modify disease are poorly understood. Cigarette smoking is the dominant malign environmental influence on lung function, causing 11.5% of deaths globally. Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease worldwide, but was uncommon 100 years ago. The asthma pandemic is linked to urbanization, leading to considerations of protective microbiota loss (the hygeine hypothesis) and acquisition of strains that may damage the airway epithelia. We therefore investigated oropharyngeal airway microbial community structures in a general population sample of Australian adults. We show here that airway bacterial communities were strongly organized into distinctive co-abundance networks (guilds), just seven of which contained 99% of all oropharyngeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Smoking was associated with...
Total Words: 5639
Unqiue Words: 2184
Mark F Richardson,
Gregory P Brown,
Lee A Rollins
Host-pathogen dynamics change rapidly during a biological invasion and are predicted to impose strong selection on immune function. The invader may experience an abrupt reduction in pathogen-mediated selection ('enemy release'), thereby favoring decreased investment into 'costly' immune responses, and the extent of this reduction may depend on factors such as propagule size. Across plants and animals, there is mixed support for this prediction. Pathogens are not the only form of selection imposed on invaders; differences in abiotic environmental conditions between native and introduced ranges are also expected to drive rapid evolution. Here, we assess the expression patterns of immune and environmentally-associated genes in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) across its invasive Australian range. Transcripts encoding mediators of costly immune responses (inflammation, cytotoxicity) showed a curvilinear relationship with invasion history, with highest expression in toads from oldest and newest colonized areas. This pattern is...
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