Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Cell Biology


1.998 Mikeys
#1. A novel technique for mapping viscosity in discrete subcellular locations with a BODIPY based fluorescent probe
Lior Pytowski, Alex C Foley, Zayra Hernandez, Niall Moon, Tim Donohoe, David J Vaux
Numerous cellular processes, including enzyme behaviour, signalling, and protein folding and transport are highly influenced by the local microviscosity environment within living cells. Molecular rotors are fluorescent molecules that respond to the viscosity of their environment through changes in both the intensity and lifetime of their fluorescence. We have synthesised a novel boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY) molecular rotor that is also a substrate for the SNAP-tag targeting system (named BG-BODIPY), allowing us to target the rotor to discrete locations within the living cell. We demonstrate that BG-BODIPY reports viscosity, and that this can be measured either through fluorescence lifetime or intensity ratiometric measurements. The relative microviscosities within the ER, Golgi, mitochondrial matrix, peroxisomes, lysosomes, cytoplasm, and nucleoplasm were significantly different. Additionally, this approach permitted fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to determine the absolute viscosity within both mitochondria and stress...
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biorxivpreprint: A novel technique for mapping viscosity in discrete subcellular locations with a BODIPY based fluorescent probe https://t.co/40qv8w9dmd #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: A novel technique for mapping viscosity in discrete subcellular locations with a BODIPY based fluorescent probe https://t.co/sSF2BmaOMV #biorxiv_cellbio
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 6
Total Words: 5579
Unqiue Words: 1976

1.998 Mikeys
#2. Development and maintenance of synaptic structure is mediated by the alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase MEC-17/αTAT1
Jean-Sébastien Teoh, Wenyue Wang, Gursimran Chandhok, Roger Pocock, Brent Neumann
Microtubules are fundamental elements of neuronal structure and function. They are dynamic structures formed from protofilament chains of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers. Acetylation of the lysine 40 (K40) residue of α-tubulin protects microtubules from mechanical stresses by imparting structural elasticity. The enzyme responsible for this acetylation event is MEC-17/αTAT1. However, despite its functional importance, the consequences of MEC-17/αTAT1 misregulation on neuronal structure and function are incompletely defined. Using overexpression and loss of function approaches, we have analysed the effects of MEC-17 misregulation on the development and maintenance of synaptic branches in the mechanosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans . We find that synaptic branch extension is delayed, and that synaptogenesis is defective in these animals. Strikingly, by adulthood the synaptic branches specifically and spontaneously degenerate. This phenotype is dependent on the acetyltransferase domain on MEC-17, revealing that correct levels...
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 12244
Unqiue Words: 3154

1.998 Mikeys
#3. Enhancing Cardiac Reprogramming by Suppressing Specific C-C Chemokine Signaling Pathways
Yijing Guo, Ienglam Lei, Shuo Tian, Wenbin Gao, Karatas Hacer, Yangbing Li, Shaomeng Wang, Liu Liu, Zhong Wang
Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) is a potentially promising strategy for heart regeneration. Yet a major challenge is the low conversion rate. To address this challenge, we screened and identified four chemicals, insulin-like growth factor-1, Mll1 inhibitor MM589, transforming growth factor-β inhibitor A83-01, and Bmi1 inhibitor PTC-209, termed as IMAP, that coordinately enhanced reprogramming efficiency. Using α-muscle heavy chain-green fluorescent protein mouse embryo fibroblasts as the staring cell type, we observed a six-fold increase of iCM formation with IMAP treatment. IMAP stimulated higher cardiac troponin T and α-actinin expression and more sarcomere formation with up-regulation of many cardiac genes and down-regulation of fibroblast genes. Furthermore, IMAP promoted higher spontaneous beating and calcium transient activities of iCMs derived from neonatal cardiac fibroblasts. Intriguingly, we identified that many genes involved in immune responses, particularly those in specific C-C chemokine...
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Sample Sizes : [10, 30]
Authors: 9
Total Words: 7924
Unqiue Words: 2428

1.998 Mikeys
#4. CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins
Ranjan Sengupta, Michael J. Poderycki, Seema Mattoo
We describe a method, termed cryoAPEX, that couples chemical fixation and high pressure freezing of cells with peroxidase-tagging (APEX) to allow precise localization of membrane proteins in the context of a well-preserved subcellular membrane architecture. Further, cryoAPEX is compatible with electron tomography. As an example, we apply cryoAPEX to obtain a high-resolution three-dimensional contextual map of the human Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein, HYPE/FicD. HYPE is a single pass membrane protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and regulates the unfolded protein response. Alternate cellular locations for HYPE have been suggested. CryoAPEX analysis shows that, under normal/resting conditions, HYPE localizes robustly within the subdomains of the ER and is not detected in the secretory pathway or other organelles. CryoAPEX is broadly applicable for assessing both lumenal and cytosol-facing membrane proteins.
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sshin6591: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
manorlaboratory: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
PichaudLab: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
Andi_Microscopy: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
Jquintanalcala: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
BioTai1: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
tanyongzi: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
cmatthaeus2: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
strangeatoms: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: CryoAPEX - an electron tomography tool for subcellular localization of membrane proteins https://t.co/BEs5koPfPg #bio…
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 3
Total Words: 12603
Unqiue Words: 4167

1.998 Mikeys
#5. A gold standard method for human cell quantification after xenotransplantation
Mona Bensalah, Pierre Klein, Ingo Riederer, Soraya Chaouch, Laura Muraine, Wilson Savino, Gillian Sandra Butler-Bowne, Capucine Trollet, Vincent Mouly, Anne Bigot, Elisa Negroni
Xenotransplantation of human cells into immunodeficient mouse models is a very powerful tool and an essential step for the pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic cell- and gene- based strategies. Here we describe an optimized protocol combining immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR to both quantify and visualize the fate and localization of human myogenic cells after injection in regenerating muscles of immunodeficient mice. Whereas real-time quantitative PCR-based method provides an accurate quantification of human cells, it does not document their specific localization. The addition of an immunofluorescence approach using human-specific antibodies recognizing engrafted human cells gives information on the localization of the human cells within the host muscle fibres, in the stem cell niche or in the interstitial space. These two combined approaches offer an accurate evaluation of human engraftment including cell number and localization and should provide a gold standard to compare results obtained either using...
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CapucineTrollet: New manuscript of the team just posted on bioRXiv. Work from Elisa Negroni and PhD student Mona Bensalah. Have a look if you are interested in xenotransplantation studies. A gold standard method for human cell quantification after xenotransplantation https://t.co/CiIF90EjZb
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Sample Sizes : [30]
Authors: 11
Total Words: 6147
Unqiue Words: 1901

1.997 Mikeys
#6. Reconstruction of Par polarity in apolar cells reveals a dynamic process of cortical polarization
Kalyn Kono, Shigeki Yoshiura, Ikumi Fujita, Yasushi Okada, Atsunori Shitamukai, Tatsuo Shibata, Fumio Matsuzaki
Cellular polarization is fundamental for various biological processes. The Par network system is conserved for cellular polarization. Its core complex consists of Par3, Par6, and aPKC. However, the dynamic processes that occur during polarization are not well understood. Here, we artificially reconstructed Par-dependent polarity using non-polarized Drosophila S2 cells expressing all three components endogenously in the cytoplasm. The results indicated that elevated Par3 expression induces cortical localization of the Par-complex at the interphase. Its asymmetric distribution goes through three steps: emergence of cortical dots, development of island-like structures with dynamic amorphous shapes, repeating fusion and fission, and polarized clustering of the islands. Our findings also showed that these islands contain a meshwork of unit-like segments. Par-complex patches resembling Par-islands exist in Drosophila mitotic neuroblasts. Thus, this reconstruction system provides an experimental paradigm to study features of the assembly...
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biorxivpreprint: Reconstruction of Par polarity in apolar cells reveals a dynamic process of cortical polarization https://t.co/DtkyDbcm3a #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Reconstruction of Par polarity in apolar cells reveals a dynamic process of cortical polarization https://t.co/0qc8Nk3U15 #biorxiv_cellbio
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Sample Sizes : [13]
Authors: 7
Total Words: 12855
Unqiue Words: 3220

1.997 Mikeys
#7. An ESCRT-LEM domain inner nuclear membrane protein surveillance system is poised to directly monitor the integrity of the nuclear envelope barrier and nuclear transport system
David Thaller, Matteo Allegretti, Sapan Borah, Paolo Ronchi, Martin Beck, C. Patrick Lusk
The integrity of the nuclear envelope membranes coupled to the diffusion barrier and selective transport properties of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are a prerequisite for the robust segregation of nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Recent work supports that mechanical membrane disruption or perturbation to NPC assembly can trigger an ESCRT-dependent surveillance system that seals nuclear envelope pores: how these pores are sensed and sealed remains to be fully defined. Here, we show that the principal components of the nuclear envelope surveillance system in yeast, which includes the ESCRT Chm7 and the integral inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Heh1, are spatially segregated by the nuclear transport system. Specifically, at steady state Chm7 is actively restricted from the nucleus by Crm1/Xpo1. Consistent with the idea that it is the exposure of the INM that triggers surveillance, the expression of a transmembrane anchor and the winged helix domain of Heh1 is sufficient to recruit and activate Chm7 at a membrane interface. Correlative...
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biorxivpreprint: An ESCRT-LEM domain inner nuclear membrane protein surveillance system is poised to directly monitor the integrity of the nuclear envelope barrier and nuclear transport system https://t.co/QsNYLYvFrZ #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: An ESCRT-LEM domain inner nuclear membrane protein surveillance system is poised to directly monitor the integrity of the nuclear ... https://t.co/WmGOOOpRCV #biorxiv_cellbio
Plusk4u: When the nuclear transport system breaks down, bring in the ESCRTs! Excellent work by @thallium81 @Matteoffm @Beck_Laboratory @LuskingL https://t.co/AcJrCR24za
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Sample Sizes : [25]
Authors: 6
Total Words: 22888
Unqiue Words: 5796

1.996 Mikeys
#8. MicroRNA-222 regulates fluid shear stress-induced human nucleus pulposus cells degeneration through affecting c-Fos expression
Gaixiong Miao, Yicun Yao, Baoqing Ye, Libing Dai, Guowei Liang, Haixiong Miao , Yicun Yao , Baoqing Ye
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a chronic disease that correlates with the deterioration of the nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. However, the molecular mechanism of IVDD remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of microRNA?222 in IVDD and the potential molecular mechanism. NP cells treated with fluid shear stress (FSS) were used to simulate a model of IVDD in vitro. MicroRNA?222 was significantly downregulated in NP cells stimulated with FSS compared with that in unstimulated NP cells. Human NP cells were also treated with FSS to induce their degeneration. The mRNA and protein levels of C-FOS, MEK, phosphorylated MEK5 (pMEK5), ERK5, and pERK5 were evaluated with RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate type II collagen and Aggrecan expression. NP cell proliferation was determined with the Cell Counting Kit-8. MicroRNA?222 was significantly downregulated in NP cells treated with FSS. The production of c-Fos and MEK5 were markedly reduced or...
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 5118
Unqiue Words: 1717

1.996 Mikeys
#9. Postnatal development of skeletal muscle in IUGR pigs: morphofunctional phenotype and molecular mechanisms
Fernanda Almeida, Andreia Pereira, Fernando Felicioni, André Caldeira-Brant, Diogo Magnabosco, Fernando Bortolozzo, Stephen Tsoi, Michael Dyck, Walter Dixon, Patricia Martinelli, Erika Jorge, Helio Chiarini-Garcia
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a serious condition which impairs the achievement of the fetus full growth potential and occurs in a natural and severe manner in pigs. Knowledge on skeletal muscle morphofunctional phenotype and its molecular regulation in IUGR pigs is important to understand postnatal muscle development and may help the establishment of therapies to improve skeletal muscle growth in those individuals. To investigate the impairment of skeletal muscle postnatal development due to IUGR, we evaluated the histomorphometrical pattern of the semitendinosus muscle, the Myosin Heavy Chain (embryonic, I, IIa, IIb and IIx MyHC) fiber composition and the relative expression of genes related to myogenesis, adipogenesis and growth during three specific periods: postnatal myogenesis (newborn to 100 days of age), postnatal development (newborn to 150 days of age), and hypertrophy (100 days to 150 days of age), comparing IUGR and normal birth weight (NW) pigs. Growth restriction in utero affected muscle fiber diameter,...
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Sample Sizes : [30, 30]
Authors: 12
Total Words: 9194
Unqiue Words: 3479

0.0 Mikeys
#10. Nestin in immature embryonic neurons regulates axon growth cone morphology and Sema3a sensitivity
Christopher J Bott, Colin G Johnson, Chan Choo Yap, Noelle D Dwyer, Karen Newell-Litwa, Bettina Winckler
Correct wiring in the neocortex requires that responses to an individual guidance cue vary among neurons in the same location, and within the same neuron over time. Nestin is an atypical intermediate filament expressed highly in neural progenitors and is thus used widely as a progenitor marker. Here we show a subpopulation of embryonic cortical neurons which transiently express nestin in their axons. Nestin expression is thus not restricted to neural progenitors but persists at lower levels in some newborn neurons for 2-3 days. We found that nestin-expressing neurons have smaller growth cones, suggesting that nestin affects cytoskeletal dynamics. Nestin, unlike other intermediate filament subtypes, regulates cdk5 kinase. Cdk5 activity is induced by the repulsive guidance cue Sema3a leading to growth cone collapse in vitro. Therefore, we tested whether nestin-expressing neurons showed altered responses to Sema3a. We find that nestin-expressing newborn neurons are more sensitive to Sema3a in a roscovitine-sensitive manner, whereas...
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Sample Sizes : None.
Authors: 6
Total Words: 13996
Unqiue Words: 3883

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