Top 10 Biorxiv Papers Today in Cell Biology


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#1. Super-Beacons: open-source probes with spontaneous tunable blinking compatible with live-cell super-resolution microscopy
Pedro M. Pereira, Nils Gustafsson, Mark Marsh, Musa M. Mhlanga, Ricardo Henriques
Localization based super-resolution microscopy relies on the detection of individual molecules cycling between fluorescent and non-fluorescent states. These transitions are commonly regulated by high-intensity illumination, imposing constrains to imaging hardware and producing sample photodamage. Here, we propose single-molecule self-quenching as a mechanism to generate spontaneous photoswitching independent of illumination. To demonstrate this principle, we developed a new class of DNA-based open-source Super-Resolution probes named Super-Beacons, with photoswitching kinetics that can be tuned structurally, thermally and chemically. The potential of these probes for live-cell friendly Super-Resolution Microscopy without high-illumination or toxic imaging buffers is revealed by imaging Interferon Inducible Transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) at sub-100nm resolutions.
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biorxivpreprint: Super-Beacons: open-source probes with spontaneous tunable blinking compatible with live-cell super-resolution microscopy https://t.co/R2o6Ry8AJ6 #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Super-Beacons: open-source probes with spontaneous tunable blinking compatible with live-cell super-resolution microscopy https://t.co/fVKlfhH9Av #biorxiv_cellbio
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Authors: 5
Total Words: 7888
Unqiue Words: 2809

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#2. Single-nucleus RNA-Seq reveals a new type of brown adipocyte regulating thermogenesis
Wenfei Sun, Hua Dong, Miroslav Balaz, Michal Slyper, Eugene Drokhlyansky, Georgia Colleluori, Antonio Giordano, Zuzana Kovanicova, Patrik Stefanicka, Lianggong Ding, Gottfried Rudofsky, Jozef Ukropec, Saverio Cinti, Aviv Regev, Christian Wolfrum
Adipose tissue usually is classified as either white, brown or beige/brite, based on whether it functions as an energy storage or thermogenic organ. It serves as an important regulator of systemic metabolism, exemplified by the fact that dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity leads to a host of secondary metabolic complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In addition, adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, which regulates the function of other metabolic tissues through paracrine and endocrine signals. Work in recent years has demonstrated that tissue heterogeneity is an important factor regulating the functionality of various organs. Here we used single nucleus analysis in mice and men to deconvolute adipocyte heterogeneity. We are able to identify a novel subpopulation of adipocytes whose abundance is low in mice (2~8%) and which is increased under higher ambient temperatures. Interestingly, this population is abundant in humans who live close to thermoneutrality. We demonstrate that this novel...
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biorxivpreprint: Single-nucleus RNA-Seq reveals a new type of brown adipocyte regulating thermogenesis https://t.co/Ag9qGicmJj #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Single-nucleus RNA-Seq reveals a new type of brown adipocyte regulating thermogenesis https://t.co/H3cLcOq6A7 #biorxiv_cellbio
GLim2016: RT @biorxivpreprint: Single-nucleus RNA-Seq reveals a new type of brown adipocyte regulating thermogenesis https://t.co/Ag9qGicmJj #bioRxiv
RogerJDavis1: RT @biorxivpreprint: Single-nucleus RNA-Seq reveals a new type of brown adipocyte regulating thermogenesis https://t.co/Ag9qGicmJj #bioRxiv
AyalaTovy: RT @biorxivpreprint: Single-nucleus RNA-Seq reveals a new type of brown adipocyte regulating thermogenesis https://t.co/Ag9qGicmJj #bioRxiv
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Authors: 15
Total Words: 0
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#3. Cell size regulation in budding yeast does not depend on linear accumulation of Whi5
Felix Barber, Ariel Amir, Andrew W Murray
Cells must couple cell cycle progress to their growth rate to restrict the spread of cell sizes present throughout a population. Linear, rather than exponential, accumulation of Whi5, was proposed to provide this coordination by causing a higher Whi5 concentration in cells born at smaller size. We tested this model using the inducible GAL1 promoter to make the Whi5 concentration independent of cell size. At an expression level that equalizes the mean cell size with that of wild-type cells, the size distributions of cells with galactose-induced Whi5 expression and wild-type cells are indistinguishable. Fluorescence microscopy confirms that the endogenous and GAL1 promoters produce different relationships between Whi5 concentration and cell volume without diminishing size control in the G1 phase. We also expressed Cln3 from the GAL1 promoter, finding that the spread in cell sizes for an asynchronous population is unaffected by this perturbation. Our findings contradict the previously proposed model for cell size control in budding...
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biorxivpreprint: Cell size regulation in budding yeast does not depend on linear accumulation of Whi5 https://t.co/yDsv8kbxaz #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Cell size regulation in budding yeast does not depend on linear accumulation of Whi5 https://t.co/A2brOnhkEU #biorxiv_cellbio
Alexis_Lomakin: RT @biorxiv_cellbio: Cell size regulation in budding yeast does not depend on linear accumulation of Whi5 https://t.co/A2brOnhkEU #biorxiv…
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Authors: 3
Total Words: 0
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#4. Bidirectional transfer of Engrailed homeoprotein across the plasma membrane requires PIP2
Irene Amblard, Edmond Dupont, isabel Alves, Julie Miralves, Isabelle Queguiner, Alain JOLIOT
Homeoproteins are a class of transcription factors sharing the unexpected property of intercellular transfer. It confers to homeoproteins a paracrine mode of action, shown to exert a wide range of physiological functions, during development and in the adult. Internalization and secretion, the two steps of intercellular transfer, rely on unconventional mechanisms but the cellular mechanisms at stake still need to be fully characterized. Thanks to the design of new quantitative and sensitive assays dedicated to the study of homeoprotein transfer in cell culture, we demonstrate a core role of the phosphoinositides PIP2 together with cholesterol in the translocation of Engrailed2 (EN2) homeoprotein across the plasma membrane. Both secretion and internalization are regulated according to PIP2 levels, challenged by drug or enzymatic treatments. In addition, EN2 specifically interacts with PIP2 and the reduced affinity of a paracrine deficient mutant of EN2 supports a role of PIP2 in homeoprotein physiological functions. We propose that...
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biorxivpreprint: Bidirectional transfer of Engrailed homeoprotein across the plasma membrane requires PIP2 https://t.co/id3WBAoh1Q #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Bidirectional transfer of Engrailed homeoprotein across the plasma membrane requires PIP2 https://t.co/FB2nsNTqX1 #biorxiv_cellbio
HubBucket: RT @biorxivpreprint: Bidirectional transfer of Engrailed homeoprotein across the plasma membrane requires PIP2 https://t.co/id3WBAoh1Q #bi…
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Authors: 6
Total Words: 0
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#5. Serotonin signaling by maternal neurons upon stress ensures progeny survival
Srijit Das, Felicia K Ooi, Johnny Cruz Corchado, Leah C C Fuller, Joshua A Weiner, Veena Prahlad
Germ cells are vulnerable to stress. Therefore, how organisms protect their future progeny from damage in a fluctuating environment is a fundamental question in biology. We show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, serotonin released by maternal neurons during stress ensures the viability and stress tolerance of future offspring by enabling the transcription factor HSF1 to alter chromatin in soon-to-be fertilized germ cells by recruiting the histone chaperone FACT, displacing histones, and initiating protective gene expression. Without maternal serotonin signaling by neurons, FACT is not recruited by HSF1 in germ cells, transcription occurs but is delayed, and progeny of stressed C. elegans mothers fail to complete development. Serotonin acts through a signal transduction pathway conserved between C. elegans and mammalian cells to facilitate HSF1 to recruit FACT. These studies uncover a novel mechanism by which stress sensing by neurons is coupled to transcription response times of germ cells to protect future offspring.
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HubBucket: RT @biorxivpreprint: Serotonin signaling by maternal neurons upon stress ensures progeny survival https://t.co/OhrzeQ79Xf #bioRxiv
Polarbe53681433: RT @biorxivpreprint: Serotonin signaling by maternal neurons upon stress ensures progeny survival https://t.co/OhrzeQ79Xf #bioRxiv
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Authors: 6
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#6. Drosophila dTBCE recruits tubulin around chromatin to promote mitotic spindle assembly
Mathieu Metivier, Emmanuel Gallaud, Aude Pascal, Jean-Philippe Gagne, Guy Poirier, Denis Chretien, Romain Gibeaux, Laurent Richard-Parpaillon, Christelle Benaud, Regis Giet
Proper assembly of mitotic spindles requires microtubule nucleation at centrosomes but also around chromatin. In this study, we reveal a novel mechanism by which an enrichment of tubulin in the nuclear space following nuclear envelope breakdown promotes nucleation of spindle microtubules. This event mediated by the tubulin-specific chaperone dTBCE, depends on its tubulin binding CAP-Gly motif and is regulated by Ran. Live imaging, proteomic and biochemical analyses suggest that dTBCE is enriched in the nucleus at nuclear envelope breakdown and interacts with nuclear pore proteins and the Ran machinery to create an environment that facilitates subsequent tubulin enrichment. We propose that dTBCE-dependent increase in tubulin concentration in the nuclear space is an important mechanism for microtubule nucleation in organisms where compartmentalization prevents free diffusion of tubulin.
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biorxivpreprint: Drosophila dTBCE recruits tubulin around chromatin to promote mitotic spindle assembly https://t.co/TLV1zvTb2M #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Drosophila dTBCE recruits tubulin around chromatin to promote mitotic spindle assembly https://t.co/xhGKFojsK8 #biorxiv_cellbio
HubBucket: RT @biorxivpreprint: Drosophila dTBCE recruits tubulin around chromatin to promote mitotic spindle assembly https://t.co/TLV1zvTb2M #bioRx…
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Authors: 10
Total Words: 12072
Unqiue Words: 3234

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#7. Human iPS Cells Derived Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Cells Promote Myoangiogenesis and Restore Dystrophin in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophic Mice
wanling xuan, Mahmood Khan, Muhammad Ashraf
Background and Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations of the gene that encodes the protein dystrophin. Loss of dystrophin leads to severe and progressive muscle-wasting in both skeletal and heart muscles. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and their derivatives offer important opportunities to treat a number of diseases. Here, we investigated whether givinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), could reprogram hiPSCs into muscle progenitor cells (MPC) for DMD treatment. Methods and Results: MPC generated by CHIR99021 and givinostat (Givi) small molecules from multiple hiPSCs expressed myogenic makers (Pax7, desmin) and were differentiated into myotubes expressing MF20 upon culture in specific differentiation medium. These MPC exhibited superior proliferation and migration capacity determined by CCK-8, colony and migration assays compared to control-MPC generated by CHIR99021 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Upon transplantation in hind limb of Mdx/SCID mice with cardiotoxin (CTX)...
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biorxivpreprint: Human iPS Cells Derived Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Cells Promote Myoangiogenesis and Restore Dystrophin in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophic Mice https://t.co/kssknbjKZr #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Human iPS Cells Derived Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Cells Promote Myoangiogenesis and Restore Dystrophin in Duchenne Muscular ... https://t.co/cpTe6mySch #biorxiv_cellbio
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Authors: 3
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#8. The Linker Domain of SNAP25 Acts as a Flexible Molecular Spacer to Ensure Efficient S-Acylation
Christine Salaun, Jennifer Greaves, Nicholas C.O. Tomkinson, Luke H. Chamberlain
S-Acylation of the SNARE protein SNAP25 is mediated by a subset of Golgi zDHHC enzymes, in particular zDHHC17. The ankyrin repeat (ANK) domain of this enzyme interacts with a short linear motif known as the zDHHC ANK binding motif (zDABM) in SNAP25 (112-VVASQP-117), which is downstream of the S-acylated cysteine-rich domain (85-CGLCVCPC-92). In this study, we have investigated the importance of the flexible linker (amino acids 93-111; referred to as the mini-linker region) that separates the zDABM and S-acylated cysteines. Shortening the mini-linker had no effect of zDHHC17 interaction but blocked S-acylation. Insertion of additional flexible glycine-serine repeats had no effect on S-acylation, whereas extended and rigid alanine-proline repeats perturbed this process. Indeed, a SNAP25 mutant in which the mini-linker region was substituted with a flexible glycine-serine linker of the same length underwent efficient S-acylation. Furthermore, this mutant displayed the same intracellular localisation as wild-type SNAP25, showing that...
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#9. Desmosomes pattern cell mechanics to govern epidermal tissue form and function
Joshua A Broussard, Jennifer L Koetsier, Kathleen J Green
The epidermis is a stratified epithelium in which structural and functional features are polarized across multiple cell layers. This type of polarity is essential for establishing the epidermal barrier, but how it is created and sustained is poorly understood. Previous work identified a role for the classical cadherin/filamentous-actin network in establishment of epidermal polarity. However, little is known about potential roles of the most prominent epidermal intercellular junction, the desmosome, in establishing epidermal polarity, in spite of the fact that desmosome constituents are patterned across the apical to basal cell layers. Here, we show that desmosomes and their associated intermediate filaments (IF) are key regulators of mechanical polarization in epidermis, whereby basal and suprabasal cells experience different forces that drive layer-specific functions. Uncoupling desmosomes and IF or specific targeting of apical desmosomes through depletion of the superficial desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein 1, impedes basal...
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biorxivpreprint: Desmosomes pattern cell mechanics to govern epidermal tissue form and function https://t.co/J2Zualp098 #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Desmosomes pattern cell mechanics to govern epidermal tissue form and function https://t.co/cjLKMLwXir #biorxiv_cellbio
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#10. Role of RBC membrane protein palmitoylation in regulation of molecular topology and susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum invasion
Soumya Pati, Preeti Yadav, Geeta Kumari, Rex D.A.B, Sangam Goswami, Swati Garg, T.S. Keshava Prasad, Sivaprakash Ramalingam, shailja singh
Squeezability of biconcave RBC raises a fundamental query, about, how it can restructure its bendable cytoskeleton for efficient micro-circulation. We report for the first time, the existence of dynamic palmitoylome in RBC composed of 118 palmitoylated proteins that reduced to 42 upon treatment with 2BP, a generic inhibitor of palmitoylation. In-depth analysis revealed that Semaphorin7A, CR1 and ABCB6, the known RBC receptors for P. falciparum were reduced to negligible in 2BP-treated RBCs, suggesting palmitoylation-dependent recruitment of parasite-specific receptors. Interestingly, Kell, a single disulphide-linked co-partner in Kell-Kx complex was undetected in 2BP-treated RBCs, while Kx remained intact. RBCs-blocked with anti-Kell antibody demonstrated signficant reduction in parasite invasion, thus suggesting it as a receptor proto-type for P. falciparum invasion. Finally, reduced expression of Kell in palmitoylated protein pool of sickle-cell RBC ghost, with its diminished surface representation in these RBCs, proposed Kell,...
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biorxivpreprint: Role of RBC membrane protein palmitoylation in regulation of molecular topology and susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum invasion https://t.co/u003C6W9fu #bioRxiv
biorxiv_cellbio: Role of RBC membrane protein palmitoylation in regulation of molecular topology and susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum invasion https://t.co/1cTY6hRNDu #biorxiv_cellbio
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Authors: 9
Total Words: 0
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