Top 6 Biorxiv Papers Today in Bioengineering


1.997 Mikeys
#1. Physics-based predictive simulations to explore the differential effects of motor control and musculoskeletal deficits on gait dysfunction in cerebral palsy: a retrospective case study
Antoine Falisse, Lorenzo Pitto, Hans Kainz, Hoa Hoang, Mariska Wesseling, Sam Van Rossom, Eirini Papageorgiou, Lynn Bar-On, Ann Hallemans, Kaat Desloovere, Guy Molenaers, Anja Van Campenhout, Friedl De Groote, Ilse Jonkers
Model-based simulations of walking have the theoretical potential to support clinical decision making by predicting the functional outcome of treatments in terms of walking performance. Yet before using such simulations in clinical practice, their ability to identify the main treatment targets in specific patients needs to be demonstrated. In this study, we generated predictive simulations of walking with a medical imaging based neuro-musculoskeletal model of a child with cerebral palsy presenting crouch gait. We explored the influence of altered muscle-tendon properties, reduced neuromuscular control complexity, and spasticity on gait function in terms of joint kinematics, kinetics, muscle activity, and metabolic cost of transport. We modeled altered muscle-tendon properties by personalizing Hill-type muscle-tendon parameters based on data collected during functional movements, simpler neuromuscular control by reducing the number of independent muscle synergies, and spasticity through delayed muscle activity feedback from muscle...
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biorxivpreprint: Physics-based predictive simulations to explore the differential effects of motor control and musculoskeletal deficits on gait dysfunction in cerebral palsy: a retrospective case study https://t.co/EEFYhWGTTC #bioRxiv
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Authors: 14
Total Words: 13101
Unqiue Words: 3652

1.997 Mikeys
#2. Delta-1 functionalized hydrogel promotes hESC-cardiomyocyte graft proliferation and maintains heart function post-injury
Kaytlyn A Gerbin, Katie A Mitzelfelt, Xuan Guan, Amy M Martinson, Charles E Murry
Current cell transplantation techniques are hindered by small graft size, requiring high cell doses to achieve therapeutic cardiac remuscularization. Enhancing the proliferation of transplanted human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) could address this, allowing an otherwise subtherapeutic cell dose to prevent disease progression after myocardial infarction. Here, we designed a hydrogel that activates Notch signaling through 3D presentation of the Notch ligand Delta-1 to use as an injectate for transplanting hESC-CMs into the infarcted rat myocardium. After four weeks, hESC-CM proliferation increased 2-fold and resulted in a 3-fold increase in graft size with the Delta-1 hydrogel compared to controls. To stringently test the effect of Notch-mediated graft expansion on long-term heart function, a normally subtherapeutic dose of hESC-CMs was implanted into the infarcted myocardium and cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Transplantation of the Delta-1 hydrogel + hESC-CMs augmented heart function and was...
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biorxivpreprint: Delta-1 functionalized hydrogel promotes hESC-cardiomyocyte graft proliferation and maintains heart function post-injury https://t.co/N4TwtC1wJ1 #bioRxiv
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Authors: 5
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1.997 Mikeys
#3. Hyaluronic acid particle hydrogels decrease cerebral atrophy and promote pro-reparative astrocyte/axonal infiltration after ischemic stroke
Elias Sideris, Aaron Yu, Jun Chen, S. Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
The death rate due to stroke is decreasing, resulting in more individuals living with stroke related disabilities. Following stroke, dying cells contribute to the large influx of highly reactive astrocytes and pro-inflammatory microglia that release cytokines and lead to a cytotoxic environment that causes further brain damage and prevents endogenous repair. Paradoxically, these same cells also activate pro-repair mechanisms that contribute to endogenous repair and brain plasticity. Here, we show that the direct injection of a hyaluronic acid based microporous annealed particle (HA-MAP) hydrogel into the stroke core reduces the percent of highly reactive astrocytes and increases the percent of alternatively activated microglia in and around the lesion. Further, we show that HA-MAP hydrogel promotes reparative astrocyte infiltration into the lesion, which directly coincides with axonal penetration into the lesion. Additionally, HA-MAP injection decreases cerebral atrophy and preserves nigrostriatal bundles after stroke. This work...
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biorxivpreprint: Hyaluronic acid particle hydrogels decrease cerebral atrophy and promote pro-reparative astrocyte/axonal infiltration after ischemic stroke https://t.co/jmduqOEegl #bioRxiv
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1.997 Mikeys
#4. Proteomic-based evaluation of nuclear transport of NLS-tagged trastuzumab-emtansine with enhanced cytotoxic potency.
Vincent Lacasse, Simon Beaudoin, Steve Jean, Jeffrey Leyton
Nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) are the only proteins able to transport large molecular weight payloads into the nucleus. A dominant area of molecular therapeutic research is the extension of the use of NTRs to target the nucleus. Although several examples of synthesized peptides harbouring nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences conjugated to various payloads exist in the literature, the assumption has been that transport occurs by classical nuclear localization via the NTRs importin-α and importin-β. Discoveries are now revealing that NTRs are highly complex and linked to distinct biological processes. Herein, we report the construction of a novel NLS-modified agent composed of trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) coupled to cell accumulator (Accum), a technology that enables monoclonal antibodies to escape endosome entrapment and accumulate conjugated payloads in the nucleus without abrogating affinity or specificity to target antigens. Accum harbours a classical NLS sequence from SV-40 Large T-antigen. We demonstrate that...
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biorxivpreprint: Proteomic-based evaluation of nuclear transport of NLS-tagged trastuzumab-emtansine with enhanced cytotoxic potency. https://t.co/LkqOjGA2ln #bioRxiv
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Authors: 4
Total Words: 0
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1.997 Mikeys
#5. The effect of wrist posture on extrinsic finger muscle activity during single joint movements
Carl R Beringer, Misagh Mansouri, Lee E. Fisher, Jennifer L. Collinger, Michael C. Munin, Michael L. Boninger, Robert Gaunt
Wrist posture impacts the muscle lengths and moment arms of the extrinsic finger muscles that cross the wrist. As a result, the electromyographic (EMG) activity associated with digit movement at different wrist postures may also change. Therefore, we sought to quantify the posture-dependence of extrinsic finger muscle activity. Fine-wire bipolar electrodes were inserted in the extrinsic hand muscles of able-bodied subjects to record EMG activity during wrist and finger movements in various postures. EMG activity of all the recorded finger muscles were significantly different (p<.05, ANOVA) when performing the same movement in five different wrist postures. EMG activity varied by up to 70%, with the highest levels of activity observed in finger extensors when the wrist was extended. Similarly, finger flexors were most active when the wrist was flexed. For the finger flexors, EMG variations with wrist posture were most prominent for index finger muscles, while the EMG activity of all finger extensor muscles were similarly modulated....
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Authors: 7
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1.997 Mikeys
#6. SimBSI: An open-source Simulink library for developing closed-loop brain signal interfaces in animals and humans
Alejandro Ojeda, Nathalie Buscher, Pragathi Balasubramani, Vojislav Maric, Dhakshin Ramanathan, Jyoti Mishra
Objective: A promising application of BCI technology is in the development of personalized therapies that can target neural circuits linked to mental or physical disabilities. Typical BCIs, however, offer limited value due to simplistic designs and poor understanding of the conditions being treated. Building BCIs on more solid grounds may require the characterization of the brain dynamics supporting cognition and behavior at multiple scales, from single-cell and local field potential (LFP) recordings in animals to non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) in humans. Despite recent efforts, a unifying software framework to support closed-loop studies in both animals and humans, is still lacking. The objective of this paper is to develop such a neurotechnology software framework. Approach: Here we develop the Simulink for Brain Signal Interfaces library (SimBSI). Simulink is a mature graphical programming environment within MATLAB that has gained traction for processing electrophysiological data. SimBSI adds to this ecosystem: 1)...
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